Table 1

Review of the clinical studies on post-COVID-19 syndrome

Author/site/no. of participantsSeverity of initial infectionFollow-up duration/mode of follow-upPrevalence post-COVID-19 syndromeGeneral sequelaeRespiratory sequelaeCV sequalaeNeurological sequelaeGI sequelaeImpaired
QoL
Carfi et al/Italy/n=1439 O2 requirement: 53.8%
NIV: 14.7%
IMV: 4.9%
ICU care: 12.6%
60.3±13.6 days*/in-person87.4%Fatigue: 53.1%
Joint pain: 27.3%
Dyspnoea: 43.4%
Cough: 15%
Chest pain: 21.7%Anosmia/ageusia: 15%
Headache: 10%
NRYes (44.1%)
Tenforde et al/
USA/n=27411
NR2–3 weeks/telephone survey34%Fatigue: 35%Cough: 43%
Dyspnoea: 29%
NRNRNRNR
Liang et al/China/n=7612 Mild: 91%
Severe: 9%
90 days/
In-person
NRFatigue: 60%
Fever: 20%
Dyspnoea: 61%
Cough: 60%
Sputum: 43%
Chest tightness: 62%
Palpitations: 62%
NRDiarrhoea: 26%NR
Arnold et al/
UK/n=11013
Mild: 24.5%
Moderate: 59.1%
Severe: 16.3%
8–12 weeks/in-person74%Fatigue: 39%
Myalgia: 22.7%
Fever: 0.01%
Dyspnoea: 39%
Cough: 11.8%
Chest pain: 12.7%Insomnia: 24%
Anosmia: 11.8%
Headache: 1.8%
Diarrhoea: 0.01%Yes
Garrigues et al/France/n=12014 ICU: 20%3–4 months/telephone surveyNRFatigue: 55%Dyspnoea: 41.7%
Cough: 16.7%
Chest pain: 10.8%Sleep disturbance: 30.8%
Memory loss: 34.2%
Attention disorder: 26.7%
Anosmia/ageusia: 10.8%–13.3%
NRYes (21.5%)
Huang et al
/China/n=173315
Admitted without O2 requirement: 25%
O2 requirement: 68%
HFNC/NIV: 6%
ECMO/IMV: 1%
6 months/in-person76%Fatigue: 63%
Joint pain: 9%
Muscular pain: 2%
Fever: 0.1%
Dyspnoea: 23%
Sore throat: 4%
Palpitations: 9%
Chest pain: 5%
Sleep disturbance: 26%
Anosmia: 11%
Aguesia: 7%
Headache: 2%
Diarrhoea/vomiting: 5%Yes
Xiong et al/China/n=53816 Mild: 61.5%
Severe: 33.5%
Critical: 5%
97 days†/in-person49.6%Fatigue: 28.3%
Sweating: 23.6%
Arthralgia: 7.6%
Chills: 4.6%
Myalgia: 4.5%
Polypnoea: 21.4%
Cough: 7.1%
Throat pain: 3.2%
Sputum: 3%
Chest pain: 12.3%
Increased resting HR: 11.2%
New onset HTN: 1.3%
Somnipathy: 17.7%
Anxiety: 6.5%
Depression: 4.3%
Dysphoria: 1.7%
NRNR
Carvalho-Schneider et al/France/ n=15017 Mild/moderate: 77.3%
Severe: 22.7%
60 days/telephone survey66%Fatigue: 40%
Joint pain: 16.3%
Dyspnoea: 30%Chest pain: 13.1%
Palpitations: 10.9%
Anosmia/ageusia: 22.7%Diarrhoea: 11.5%NR
Halpin et al/
UK/
n=10018
O2 requirement: 78%
NIV: 30%
IMV: 1%
ICU care: 32%
48 days†/telephone surveyNRFatigue: 64%Dyspnoea: 40%NRPTSD: 31%
Difficulty in concentration: 22%
Dysphagia: 8%NR
Logue et al/USA/n=17719 Asymptomatic: 6.2%
Mild: 84.7%
Moderate to severe: 9%
169 days†/in-person30%Fatigue: 13.6%NRNR‘Brain fog’: 2.3%NR29.9%
Chopra et al/
USA/n=48820
NR60 days/telephone survey32.6%NRDyspnoea: 22.9%
Cough: 15.4%
NRAnosmia/ageusia: 13.1%NRNR
Moreno-Pérez et al/
Spain/n=27721
Mild: 34.3%
Moderate-Severe: 65.7%
77 days†/in-person50.9%Fatigue: 34.8%
Myalgia: 19.6%
Dyspnoea: 11%
Cough: 2.1%
NRAnosmia/ageusia: 21.4%
Headache: 5.4%
Diarrhoea: 10.5%66.9%
Pereira et al/UK/ n=3822 Mild: 100%7–8 months/in-person55%Fatigue: 57%Dyspnoea: 24%NRAnosmia: 29%
Difficulty in concentration: 24%
NRNR
Taboada et al
/Spain/n=9123
ICU: 100%6 months/In-person84%Asthenia: 37% Myalgia: 37% Arthralgia: 29%Dyspnoea: 57%
Cough: 14.4%
Chest pain: 8.8%Anosmia: 11%
Insomnia: 30.8%
NRYes (67%)
Mahmud et al/Bangladesh/n=35524 Mild: 62%
Moderate: 26%
Severe: 11%
30 days/telephone survey46%Fatigue: 33%
Rash: 0.6%
Myalgia: 0.6%
Cough: 8.5%
Dyspnoea: 7%
Palpitation: 1.4%
Bradycardia: 0.6%
Chest pain: 0.8%
New onset HTN: 0.6%
Headache: 3.4%
Vertigo: 2.3%
Insomnia: 2.3%
Anosmia: 2%
Memory disturbance: 0.6%
New onset dyspepsia: 1.4%NR
Sonnweber et al/Austria/n=14525 O2 requirement: 66%
NIV: 3%
IMV: 27%
60–100 days/in-personNRNight sweats: 24%Dyspnoea: 36%
Cough: 17%
NRSleep disorders: 22%
Hyposmia/anosmia: 19%
Diarrhoea: 9%NR
  • *Mean±SD.

  • †Median.

  • CV, cardiovascular; ECMO, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; GI, gastrointestinal; HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; HR, Heart Rate; HTN, hypertension; ICU, intensive care unit; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; NR, not reported; O2, oxygen; PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder; QoL, Quality of Life.