Table 1

Published wellness interventions used by various specialties

Wellness interventions used by residency programs
Article titleAuthorDateSpecialtyLocation# of participantsIntervention componentsAssessment
A strategy for wellness in a pathology residency program: enhancing chances of success during an epidemic of burnoutSaint Martin et al 2018PathologyChicago, IL17Wellness training for individual, programme and institution; wellness talks; resilience coaches; modify mentorship programme; mindfulness practices; volunteer opportunities; fitness centre discounts.Satisfaction and utilisation survey
Anesthesia resident wellness program at University of Saskatchewan: concept and development; content and deliveryChakravarti et al 2015AnaesthesiaCanada31Modular curriculum with eight topics: wellness, resilience, professionalism, occupational wellness, emotional wellness, financial wellness & career management, team building, situational awareness. Peer support curriculum, self-directed learning activities, overall department wellness programme.Survey and focus groups
Impact of family medicine resident wellness curriculum: a feasibility studyRunyan et al 2013Family MedicineWorcester, MA361 month wellness curriculum for PGY-2 residents led by behaviour science faculty focusing on burnout, empathy, stress and self-compassion.MBI, Self-Compassion Scale, Perceived Stress Scale, Jefferson Empathy Scale
Implementation of small group reflection rounds at an emergency medicine residency programWen et al 2011Emergency MedicineBoston, MA9Small group reflection rounds: 1 hour monthly sessions with faculty facilitators to discuss difficult ethical or interpersonal encounters.Satisfaction survey
Current wellness practices among otolaryngology residenciesO’Brien et al 2017ENTMuli107Faculty mentoring, wellness lecture, no-cost mental health resources, seminars in mindfulness, financially supported social events, allowed time off for appointments.Survey
Feasibility of comprehensive wellness and suicide prevention program: a decade of caring for physicians in training and practiceEy et al 2011MultiPortland, OR906Individual counselling, psychiatric evaluation, wellness workshops.Utilisation rates of services, satisfaction ratings
Perspectives from a residency training program following the implementation of a wellness initiativeBuchholz et al 2015NeurosurgeryCharleston, SC10Wellness lectures, weekly 1 hour team exercise, healthy food choices at conferences, progressive exercise, sleep and dietary goal setting.Satisfaction survey
Perceived value of a program to promote surgical resident well beingSalles et al 2012SurgeryStanford, CA76Balance in life programme with six components: refrigerator stocked with healthy food and drinks; after-hours guide; psychological counselling sessions; resident mentorship programme; class rep system; social events.MBI, Dupuy Psychological Well Being Scale and Grit
Wellness program for anesthesiology residents: a randomized controlled trialSaadat et al 2012AnaesthesiaNew Haven, CT60Three groups: wellness intervention (16 1.5 hour-sessions on coping with work and family stress); no treatment control with release time; no treatment control with routine duties.Multiple instruments including National Survey on Drug Abuse
Does implementation of a corporate wellness initiative improve burnout?Hart et al 2017Emergency MedicineMinneapolis, MN46Trial of wellness programmes (The Happiness Practice) originating from other industries.MBI and reactions data
A program to prevent burnout, depression, anxiety in first-year pediatric residentsSlavin et al 2016PaediatricsSt. Louis, MO17Three facet programme: stress reduction & finding meaning in medicine; ethics including approach to difficult patients or medical mistakes; organisational approach.MBI, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory
Operation La Sierra: a novel wellness initiative for the neuro surgery residentsFargen et al 2015NeurosurgeryCharleston, SC9FitBits, wellness lectures, weekly exercise sessions with a trainer and healthy food choices at morning conferences.Body composition testing, satisfaction survey
Evidence-based longitudinal curriculum for resident physician wellness: 2017 resident wellness consensus summitArnold et al 2017Emergency MedicineMulti30Foundational modules: Intro to Wellness; Self Care Series (Sleep to Financial Wellness); Physician Suicide & Self Help; Clinical Care Series; Wellness in the Workplace; Dealing with Medical Errors & Shame.‘Wellness Think Tank’
Resident physician wellness curriculum: a study of efficacy and satisfactionLefebvre et al 2019Emergency MedicineCanada58Two components: scheduled meetings with dedicated faculty wellness mentor; wellness lectures related to fitness, healthy food preparation and financial planning.Brief Resident Wellness Profile and SF-8 Health Survey
Resident-led organisational initiatives to reduce burnout and improve wellnessMari et al 2019PsychiatryBoston, MA39On-Call Task Force and Food Action Team to improve on-call experience, financially supported social events, designated ‘wellness day’, mindfulness didactics, recommended primary care providers.Copenhagen Burnout Inventory
Evaluation of a formal wellness curriculum to reduce burnout in anaesthesia residents: a pilot studyBrainard et al 2019AnaesthesiaAurora, CO39Didactics, interactive sessions on mindfulness, peer-mentoring program, monthly wellness education articles, wellness reference card, confidential monitored wellness email address, quarterly resident group dinners.MBI
A comprehensive residency wellness curriculumZradzinski et al 2020Emergency MedicineAtlanta, GA106Workshops on seven wellness domains: emotional, occupational, financial, physical, intellectual, social and spiritual.MBI, satisfaction survey
Designing well-being: using design thinking to engage residents in developing well-being interventionsThomas et al 2020Internal MedicineSan Francisco, CA18Design thinking programme with four workshops to discuss and solve well-being problems. Themes included community and connection, space for reflection, peer support and availability of individualised wellness.Post-intervention interviews
  • Separated by date of publication, specialty, location of residency programme, number of residents who participated in the intervention, description of the intervention components and method of assessment.

  • MBI, Maslach Burnout Inventory.