Table 4

Studies on faecal microbiota changes associated with COVID-19

StudyPatients/controlsTimepoint of sample collectionChange in microbiotaOther findings
Gu et al (2020)61 30 patients with COVID-19, China
30 controls
At admissionStool samples of patients with COVID-19 had an abundance of opportunistic pathogens, such as Streptococcus, Rothia, Veillonella and Actinomyces.Richness, diversity and structure of the gut microbiota were not significantly different between general COVID-19 and severe COVID-19
Zuo et al
30 patients with COVID-19, China
2–3 times per week during hospital stayThe microbiome in most patients (22 of 30 patients with COVID-19) was similar to that in healthy controls. In contrast, gut microbiome in patients with COVID-19 (8 of 30) had alterations, with enrichment of Candida albicans and heterogeneous composition.Patients with COVID-19 had increased proportions of opportunistic pathogens (Candida albicans, C. auris, Aspergillus flavus) during hospitalisation
Tao et al
62 patients with COVID-19, China
33 seasonal flu
40 controls
Samples were collected at first time of visit to the hospitalPatients with COVID-19 had an abundance of Streptococcus, Clostridium, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium in gut microbiota. In contrast, lower levels of Bacteroides, Roseburia, Faecalibacterium, Coprococcus, Parabacteroides were found.Alpha-diversity of gut microbiome decreased in COVID-19 compared with that in healthy control and patients with influenza