Table 3

Overview of symptoms at presentation which may suggest aetiology

Symptoms suggestive of infectious causeSymptoms suggestive of immune-mediated cause
Acute or subacute onset
Prodromal flu-like illness
Alterations in personality, behaviour, cognition or consciousness
Vomiting or gastrointestinal upset
Travel history or exposure to known vectors of encephalitis causing infections
Immunocompromise
Skin rashes
Subacute or chronic onset
Altered personality, behaviour, psychosis, catatonia
Sleep disorder-disruption
Memory issues
Recent viral illness
Seizures (eg, brachiofacial dystonic)
Status epilepticus
Autonomic instability
Movement disorders (eg, orofacial dyskinesia)
Underlying symptoms concerning for malignancy