Table 2

Baseline characteristics of the COVID-19 cohort according to mode of onset (fulminant vs non-fulminant onset)

ParameterTotal
n=2016
Fulminant onset
n=653
Non-fulminant onset
n=1363
P value for difference
Categorical variables
 Age<50 years532 (26.4%)132 (20.2%)400 (29.3%)
 Age 50–60 years483 (23.9%)147 (22.5%)336 (24.7%)
 Age 60–70 years550 (27.3%)186 (28.5%)364 (26.7%)<0.001
 Age 70–80 years324 (16.1%)124 (19.0%)200 (14.7%)
 Age>80 years127 (6.3%)64 (9.8%)63 (4.6%)
 Male1376 (68.2%)460 (70.4%)916 (67.2%)0.14
 Chronic smoking23 (1.1%)5 (0.7%)18 (1.3%)0.37
 Diabetes mellitus1044 (51.8%)370 (56.6%)674 (49.4%)0.002
 Hypertension818 (40.6%)312 (47.8%)506 (37.1%)<0.001
 CKD82 (4.1%)43 (6.6%)39 (2.8%)<0.001
 Chronic dialysis27 (1.3%)12 (1.8%)15 (1.1%)0.18
 CAD268 (13.3%)109 (16.7%)159 (11.7%)0.002
 Bronchial asthma74 (3.7%)25 (3.8%)49 (3.6%)0.80
 COPD17 (0.8%)9 (1.4%)8 (0.6%)0.07
 Immuno-suppressed15 (0.7%)10 (1.5%)5 (0.4%)0.004
Vaccination status
 Unvaccinated1400 (69.4%)480 (73.5%)920 (67.5%)
 Partial135 (6.7%%)34 (5.2%)101 (7.4%)0.01
 Complete (two doses)205 (10.2%)54 (8.2%)151 (11.1%)
 Vaccination status missing276 (13.7%)85 (13.0%)191 (14.0%)0.54
Vaccine type
 Covaxin (partial or complete)81 (4.0%)16 (2.4%)65 (4.8%)
 Covishield (partial or complete)207 (10.3%)57 (8.7%)150 (11.0%)0.007
 Vaccine type missing331 (16.4%)104 (15.9%)227 (16.7%)0.65
Manifestations at hospitalisation
 Hypoxia (SaO2≤94) at admission909 (45.1%)538 (82.4%)371 (27.2%)<0.001
 ARDS at admission96 (4.8%)67 (10.3%)29 (2.1%)<0.001
 Invasive mechanical ventilation at admission35 (1.74%)24 (3.7%)11 (0.8%)<0.001
 Shock at admission22 (1.1%)12 (1.8%)10 (0.7%)0.03
 AKI at admission326 (16.1%)210 (32.1%)116 (8.5%)<0.001
 AKI—stage 331 (1.5%)18 (2.7%)13 (1.0%)0.004
 Acute encephalopathy at admission21 (1.0%)14 (2.1%)8 (0.6%)0.002
Continuous variables
 Age in years mean (SD) median (IQR) range59.2 (14.2)
60 (50–70)
18–95
62.2 (13.7)
63 (53–72)
20–93
57.8 (14.3)
59 (49–68)
18–95
<0.001
 SaO2 at admission mean (SD) median (IQR) range92.2 (8.5)
95 (91–97)
30–100
87.8 (10.7)
92 (85–94)
30–100
94.3 (6.3)
96 (94–98)
40–100
<0.001
 D-dimer ng/mL mean (SD) median (IQR) range880.5 (1854.3)
300 (100–700)
9.6–16100
1182.8 (2302.5)
400 (140–900)
50–16 100
736.3 (1577.6)
240 (100–623)
9.6–14 800
<0.001
 CRP mg/L mean (SD) median (IQR) range72.0 (85.7)
41 (12–104)
0.1–943
95.6 (94.1)
64 (25–139)
0.4–630
61.0 (79.2)
32 (10–88.5)
0.1–943
<0.001
  • AKI, acute kidney injury; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome; CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRP, C reactive protein; SaO2, resting oxygen saturation.