Table 2

Participant demographics, health policy instruction/information sources, and attitudes/barriers towards advocacy engagement

GenderN%
Male1423.33
Female4575.00
Non-binary/prefer not to say11.67
Stage of training
Premedical student11.67
Medical student2033.33
PGY-1 resident23.33
PGY-2 resident915.00
PGY-3 resident46.67
Fellow35.00
Faculty member1830.00
Other35.00
Specialty (or intended specialty)
Internal medicine58.33
Emergency medicine11.67
Adolescent medicine23.33
Family medicine58.33
Paediatrics58.33
OB/GYN23.33
Infectious disease23.33
Dermatology3253.33
General surgery35.00
Surgical subspecialty23.33
Other/non-medical11.67
Other degrees
MPH1423.33
MPP/MPA23.33
MBA23.33
MSc58.33
PhD610.00
None3050.00
Other23.33
Prior formal health policy instruction
Undergraduate1118.33
Post-baccalaureate35.00
Medical school2541.67
Internship58.33
Residency1220.00
Other graduate school711.67
Other experience/programme35.00
None2033.33
Source of health policy info
Formal in-person lectures/education activities2135.00
Discussions with peers/colleagues4168.33
Webinars610.00
Peer-reviewed academic publications1525.00
News publications3863.33
Organised medicine publications610.00
Think tank publications711.67
Newsletters1321.67
Social media/blogs3253.33
Other internet sources1321.67
Other35.00
How important do you think it is for physicians to be engaged in advocacy efforts? Importance before COVID-19 (%) Importance during COVID-19 (%) P value*
Extremely important58.3383.33 <0.0001
Important31.6716.67
Moderately important8.330.00
Somewhat important1.670.00
Not important0.000.00
Barriers to engaging in advocacy Own barriers (%) General physician barriers (%) P value†
Lack of interest3.3333.33 <0.0001
Lack of knowledge60.0080.00 0.017
Lack of time83.3386.670.61
Financial cost5.006.670.70
Not important0.0021.67 0.0001
Other10.006.670.51
No barriers3.330.000.16
  • *P value calculated from Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for Likert scale.

  • †P values calculated from χ2 tests for comparison of proportions.