Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population

All
(n=51)
Cardiorenal SyndromeP value
Yes (n=18)No (n=33)
Age, years73±1477±1272±140.202
Male, n (%)31 (60.8)9 (50.0)22 (66.7)0.244
Weight, kg64.0±11.264.5±10.163.7±11.90.808
BMI, kg/m2 25.7±4.126.7±4.325.1±3.90.166
Hypertension, n (%)34 (66.7)10 (55.6)24 (72.7)0.214
CAD, n (%)27 (52.9)7 (38.9)20 (60.6)0.138
Diabetes mellitus, n (%)27 (52.9)11 (61.1)16 (48.5)0.388
Hyperlipidaemia, n (%)27 (52.9)11 (61.1)16 (48.5)0.388
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)27 (52.9)8 (44.4)19 (57.6)0.369
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 47.8±18.346.1±15.748.7±19.80.638
Permanent pacemaker, n (%)4 (7.8)3 (16.7)1 (3.0)0.120
CRT, n (%)7 (13.7)1 (5.6)6 (18.2)0.398
Ever-smoker, n (%)19 (37.3)7 (38.9)12 (36.4)0.859
BNP, pg/mL1380±901892±6131647±9280.003*
NGAL, ng/mL176±100202±122162±840.278
Creatinine, μmol/L134±46129±42137±490.542
Preadmission medications
 Frusemide, n (%)30 (58.8)12 (66.7)18 (54.5)0.401
 Beta-blocker, n (%)30 (58.8)11 (61.1)19 (57.6)0.806
 ACEI/ ARB, n (%)29 (56.9)9 (50.0)20 (60.6)0.465
 MRA, n (%)15 (29.4)1 (5.6)14 (42.4)0.006*
 Nitrate, n (%)15 (29.4)5 (27.8)10 (30.3)0.850
 Hydralazine, n (%)4 (7.8)1 (5.6)3 (9.1)1.000
 Digoxin, n (%)10 (19.6)2 (11.1)8 (24.2)0.462
 Statin, n (%)25 (49.0)8 (44.4)17 (51.5)0.629
 Antiplatelet agents, n (%)25 (49.0)10 (55.6)15 (45.5)0.490
 Anticoagulant, n (%)18 (35.3)4 (22.2)14 (42.4)0.149
  • *p<0.05.

  • ACEI, ACE inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; BMI, body mass index; BNP, brain natriuretic peptide; CAD, coronary artery disease; CRT, cardiac resynchronisation therapy; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; MRA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist; NGAL, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin.