Table 1

Demographics and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 with chronic airway inflammation on admission

All patients (N=59)Non-severe patients (n=33)Severe patients (n=26)P value
Age (years)71 (57–80)70 (55–79)74 (64–82)0.184
 <302 (3)1 (3)1 (4)0.726
 30–495 (8)4 (12)1 (4)
 50–6920 (34)11 (33)9 (35)
 ≥7032 (54)17 (52)15 (58)
Sex
 Female17 (29)10 (30)7 (27)0.776
 Male42 (71)23 (70)19 (73)
Comorbidity31 (53)17 (52)14 (54)0.859
 COPD18 (30)7 (21)11 (42)0.081
 Chronic bronchitis31 (53)18 (55)13 (50)0.728
 Asthma10 (17)8 (24)2 (8)0.093
 Cardiovascular disease27 (46)14 (42)13 (50)0.562
 Cerebrovascular disease3 (5)1 (3)2 (8)0.418
 Digestive system disease1 (2)0 (0)1 (4)0.441
 Endocrine system disease9 (15)4 (12)5 (19)0.451
 Nephrosis2 (3)1 (3)1 (4)0.863
 Urinary system disease1 (2)1 (3)0 (0)1.000
 Viral hepatitis1 (2)1 (3)0 (0)1.000
Smokers29 (49)14 (42)15 (58)0.244
Symptoms and signs
 Fever
  <38.5℃21 (36)13 (39)8 (31)0.407
  ≥38.5℃28 (47)14 (42)14 (54)
 Cough43 (73)21 (64)22 (85)0.072
 Chest tightness16 (27)7 (21)9 (35)0.250
 Haemoptysis1 (2)0 (0)1 (4)0.441
 Dyspnoea25 (42)8 (24)17 (65)0.001
 Fatigue28 (47)15 (45)13 (50)0.728
 Myalgia11 (19)7 (21)4 (15)0.568
 Nausea2 (3)1 (3)1 (4)0.863
 Anorexia2 (3)0 (0)2 (8)0.190
 Diarrhoea15 (25)9 (27)6 (23)0.713
 Headache2 (3)0 (0)2 (8)0.190
  • Data are median (IQR) or n (%).

  • P values comparing severe with non-severe patients were calculated by χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.