Table 2

Laboratory findings of patients with COVID-19 with chronic airway inflammation on admission

Normal rangeAll patients (N=59)Non-severe patients (n=33)Severe patients (n=26)P value
White cell count, ×109/L4.00–10.006.66 (4.54–9.61)5.98 (3.71–7.43)9.27 (5.86–12.83)0.002
 <413 (22)9 (27)4 (15)0.004
 4–1033 (56)22 (67)11 (42)
 >1013 (22)2 (6)11 (43)
Neutrophil count, ×109/L1.80–6.304.50 (2.73–7.99)4.12 (2.36–5.42)8.16 (3.90–12.00)0.001
Lymphocyte count, ×109/L1.10–3.200.84 (0.53–1.44)1.14 (0.80–1.73)0.56 (0.28–0.76)0.000
 <1.138 (64)16 (48)22 (85)0.004
 ≥1.121 (36)17 (52)4 (15)
Macrophages, ×109/L0.10–0.600.51 (0.35–0.63)0.51 (0.36–0.66)0.52 (0.33–0.63)0.891
Eosinophil count, ×109/L0.02–0.520.02 (0.00–0.08)0.04 (0.02–0.11)0.00 (0.00–0.02)0.000
 <0.0227 (46)8 (24)19 (73)0.000
 ≥0.0232 (54)25 (76)7 (27)
Basophils, ×109/L0.00–0.100.01 (0.01–0.03)0.01 (0.01–0.03)0.01 (0.01–0.03)0.657
Haemoglobin, g/L130.0–175.0129.0 (112.0–139.0)134.0 (116.5–141.0)125.5 (109.0–134.8)0.184
Platelet count, ×109/L125.0–350.0213.0 (143.0–272.0)216.0 (166.0–279.5)176.0 (85.5–244.5)0.145
 <12510 (17)2 (6)8 (31)0.012
 ≥12549 (83)31 (94)18 (69)
Ferritin, µg/L30–400534.60 (219.80–1355.63)293.55 (201.90–581.00)1264.20 (577.45–1889.55)0.004
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, mm/hour0–1531.50 (15.00–59.75)40.00 (16.50–59.50)26.00 (15.00–74.00)0.872
D-dimer, µg/mL≤0.51.73 (0.49–2.74)0.65 (0.40–2.17)2.69 (1.44–8.99)0.001
 ≤0.514/57 (25)12/31 (39)2 (8)0.001
 >0.5–≤17/57 (12)6/31 (19)1 (4)
 >136/57 (63)13/31 (42)23 (88)
Creatine kinase, U/L≤19085.50 (47.50–196.00)65.00 (38.00–162.25)127.00 (60.50–446.50)0.065
Lactate dehydrogenase, U/L135–225260.00 (223.00–471.00)230.00 (200.00–280.00)471.00 (291.00–628.00)0.000
 ≤22515 (25)14 (42)1 (4)0.001
 >22544 (75)19 (58)25 (96)
Hypersensitive troponin I, pg/mL≤34.27.60 (3.03–44.70)4.10 (1.95–14.15)33.40 (4.55–281.85)0.001
 ≤34.240/54 (74)27/29 (93)13/25 (52)0.001
 >34.214/54 (26)2/29 (7)12/25 (48)
Alanine aminotransferase, U/L≤4124.00 (15.00–40.00)22.00 (14.00–39.50)24.50 (17.50–69.00)0.205
 ≤4145 (76)27 (82)18 (69)0.259
 >4114 (24)6 (18)8 (31)
Aspartate aminotransferase, U/L≤4032.00 (19.00–50.00)23.00 (18.50–39.50)45.50 (21.50–89.25)0.003
 ≤4037 (63)26 (79)11 (42)0.004
 >4022 (37)7 (21)15 (58)
Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L3.6–9.55.10 (3.80–8.30)4.70 (3.75–5.60)7.90 (4.50–15.15)0.004
 ≤9.547 (80)32 (97)15 (58)0.000
 >9.512 (20)1 (3)11 (42)
Creatinine, μmol/L59–10474.00 (61.00–94.00)72.00 (61.00–86.50)80.50 (60.00–123.25)0.136
 ≤10449 (83)32 (97)17 (65)0.001
 >10410 (17)1 (3)9 (35)
Procalcitonin, ng/mL<0.050.08 (0.04–0.31)0.04 (0.03–0.07)0.18 (0.08–1.37)0.000
 <0.0518/55 (33)17/30 (57)1/25 (4)0.000
 ≥0.0537/55 (67)13/30 (43)24/25 (96)
High-sensitivity C reactive protein, mg/L<130.55 (4.33–124.28)19.85 (1.93–34.05)126.15 (27.68–188.43)0.000
 <314/58 (24)11/32 (34)3 (12)0.043
 ≥344/58 (76)21/32 (66)23 (88)
IL-1β, pg/mL<55.00 (5.00–5.00)5.00 (5.00–5.00)5.00 (5.00–5.00)0.245
IL-2R, U/L223–710645.00 (406.50–1068.00)499.50 (337.25–734.25)973.00 (602.00–1919.00)0.000
IL-6, pg/mL<711.59 (2.34–57.00)5.68 (1.83–29.56)47.42 (8.64–167.20)0.002
IL-8, pg/mL<6214.40 (7.90–47.10)11.20 (5.40–21.05)34.10 (12.95–81.00)0.001
IL-10, pg/mL<9.15.00 (5.00–7.20)5.00 (5.00–5.00)6.30 (5.00–19.45)0.001
TNF-α, pg/mL<8.19.20 (5.75–12.90)7.65 (4.60–10.83)11.80 (7.50–17.30)0.021
  • Data are median (IQR), n (%) or n/N (%), where N is the total number of patients with available data.

  • P values comparing severe with non-severe patients were calculated by χ2 test, Fisher’s exact test or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate.

  • IL, interleukin; TNF-α, tumour necrosis factor-α.