Table 1

Overview of study characteristics

AuthorCountryData collection periodSample size (n)Study designHCW populationAcceptance (%)Factors associated with intention to take COVID-19 vaccineReasons for vaccine hesitancy
Kwok et al12ChinaMid-March to late April 20201205Cross-sectionalNurses63%Positive factors:
Younger age, 5C psychological antecedents, greater work stress (mediator), COVID-19-related work demands (indirect effects)
Not mentioned
Wang et al13China26 February to 31 March 2020806Cross-sectionalNurses40%Positive factors:
Male, having chronic conditions, in private sector, encountering with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patients, previous influenza vaccination
Suspicion on efficacy, effectiveness and safety
Believing it is unnecessary
No time to take it
Lucia et al16USANot mentioned168Cross-sectional
Qualitative comments
Medical students77.3%Negative factor:
Concern for serious vaccine side effects
Concerns for serious vaccine side effects, distrusting the information from public health experts
Qualitative: concerns about vaccine safety/efficacy, rapid development/implementation of vaccine, politicisation
Gagneux-Brunon et al17France26 March to 2 July 20202047Cross-sectionalPhysicians, pharmacists, nurses, assistant nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, other HCWs75%Positive factors:
Older age, male, physicians, fear about COVID-19, perceived individual risk, influenza vaccination during previous season
Not mentioned
Nzaji et al18CongoMarch to 30 April 2020613cross-sectionalDoctors, nurses, midwives and laboratory technicians27.7%Positive factors:
Male, doctors, having a positive attitude towards a COVID-19 vaccine
Not mentioned
Verger et al19France
Belgium
Canada
October to November 20202678Cross-sectionalGeneral practitioners, nurses72.4%
(high acceptance: 48.6%; moderate acceptance: 28.4%)
Positive factors:
History of influenza vaccination
Vaccine safety concerns
Distrusting the ministry of health to ensure vaccine safety
Shaw et al20USA23 November to 5 December 20205287Cross-sectional
Two qualitative questions
Clinical and non-clinical staff, researchers and trainees57.5%Positive factors:
Physicians and research scientists, older, men, Caucasian, Asian
Concerns:
Vaccine safety, adverse events, efficacy and speed of vaccine development
Unroe et al21USA14–17 November 20208243Cross-sectionalNursing home staff69%
(immediately: 45%; in the future: 24%)
Positive factors:
Age over 60, man, Caucasian race
Concerns for side effects, health concerns, questioning the effectiveness, religious reasons, too new, a lack of trust, the need for more research, it was too political
Shekhar et al22USA7 October to 9 November 20203479Cross-sectionalPhysician, resident, medical student and so on36%
(immediately)
Positive factors:
Increasing age, education and income levels
Male, Asian, south, Democrat/Liberal, previous influenza vaccine, direct medical providers (eg, physician/resident/medical student), with chronic medical conditions, self-perceived risk
Concerns: safety, effectiveness, side effects, speed of development/approval
Distrust of the government and regulatory authorities
Manning et al23USA10 August to 14 September 20201212Cross-sectional
Qualitative comments
Student nurses, full-time faculty and clinical adjunct faculty46.1%Faculty, age of 60 and greater, male, whether providing direct patient care, whether their colleagues acquired COVID-19, perceived impact on their own healthDeveloped too quickly to be safe
Side effects
Kociolek et al24USA21 December 2020 to 13 January 20214448Cross-sectionalClinical and non-clinical staff59.8%
(8.6% had received the vaccine)
Positive factors:
Male, not black, not Hispanic/Latinx, concerns about severe COVID-19
Concerns about vaccine safety
Too political
Distrusting the FDA and CDC
Kose et al25Turkey17–20 September 20201138Cross-sectionalPhysician, nurse/midwife, student (medicine and nurse), others68.6%Positive factors:
Male, students, younger age group, with a previous influenza shot
Worrying about side effects, distrusting the vaccine, the vaccine will not work, trusting their own immune system, be protected from the disease, not afraid of getting sick
Gadoth et al26USA24 September to 16 October 2020609Cross-sectionalPrescribing clinicians, nurses, other personnel with direct patient contact, personnel without patient contact33.1%Fast-tracked development timeline, novel and unfolding science of SARS-CoV-2, political climate
Positive factors: aged of 50 years or older, prescribing clinicians, male
Concerns about fast-tracking regulatory procedures (21.9%) and a lack of transparency and/or publicly available information on newly developed vaccines (19.7%)
  • CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; FDA, Food and Drug Administration; HCWs, healthcare workers.