Table 1

Studies included in the analysis

Author/year of publicationCountryLanguageNumber of patientsMale (%)Age (mean±SD or range)Technique usedDetection timeCut-offStudy designOutcomesAUCTPFPFNTNSEN (%)SPE (%)
Severe diseaseXu et al33 2020ChinaChinese1555641.99±15.40NR<24 hour18.92 pg/mLRetrospectiveSevere and critical0.801246438279.365.5
Yang et al34 2020ChinaChinese765153.3±15.1NR<24 hour12.8 pg/mLRetrospectiveSevere and critical0.8626953775.088.2
Nagant et al35 2020BelgiumEnglish636072.7 (18.6–95.9)CLIA>24 hourNRProspectiveSevere0.8855411854.694.7
Zhu et al36 2020ChinaEnglish1273550.90±15.26NR>24 hourNRRetrospectiveSevere and critical0.835142288387.574.8
Gao et al37 2020ChinaEnglish4360NRCLIA>24 hour24.3 pg/mLRetrospectiveSevere0.79511432573.389.3
Zhao et al38 2020ChinaEnglish2854766(57–70)NRNRNRNRSevere0.7138363018152.086.0
Liu et al39 2020ChinaEnglish885860.45±11.51ELISA>24 hour10.59 pg/mLRetrospectiveSevere and critical0.91635934179.693.2
Huang et al40 2020ChinaEnglish645847.8±18.5NRNR3.8 pg/mLRetrospectiveSevere0.79174133080.069.6
Satış et al41 2020TurkeyEnglish585043 (22–81)ELISA<24 hour54 pg/mLProspectiveSevere0.938174289.086.0
Tang et al42 2020ChinaEnglish1204559(47–68)NR<24 hour0.64ProspectiveSevere0.67253362489.340.0
Shi et al43 2020ChinaChinese4556NRCLIA<24 hour6.02 ng/LProspectiveSevere and critical0.871120132099.362.1
Fei et al44 2020ChinaChinese724457.8±13.7NR>24 hour48.23 ng/LRetrospectiveSevere0.79182213190.059.6
MortalityZhou et al45 2020ChinaEnglish665363(53-74)ELISA>24 hour26.09 pg/mLRetrospectiveDead0.88771451387.577.6
Mandel et al46 2020IsraelEnglish717062±13.8ELISA>24 hour163.4 pg/mLProspectiveDeadNR111342591.757.6
Liu et al47 2020ChinaEnglish30846NRCLIA<24 hour22.8 pg/mLRetrospectiveDead0.85131391043577.075.0
Gorham et al48 2020BelgiumEnglish417858(53–64)ELISA<24 hour1000 pg/mLRetrospectiveDead0.7383191175.064.0
Zhang et al49 2020ChinaEnglish9014860(49-69)CLIA>24 hour37.65 pg/mLRetrospectiveDead0.972228393891.795.7
  • AUC, area under curve; CLIA, chemiluminescence immunoassay; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; FN, false negative; FP, false positive; NR, not reported; SEN, sensitivity; SPE, specificity; ; TN, true negative; TP, true positive.