Table 3

Study outcomes at 6 months postinterventions

OutcomesAdequate HL (total 145)Inadequate HL (total 144)RAMP-Individual
Total
RAMP-Group
Total
P value
RAMP-Individual (n=51)RAMP-Group (n=94)P valueRAMP-Individual (n=86)RAMP-Group (n=58)P value*
Any change of HT drugs
  • Yes

24 (47.1%)40 (42.6%)0.60229 (33.7%)23 (39.7%)0.53053 (38.7%)63 (41.4%)0.633
  • No

27 (52.9%)54 (57.4%)57 (66.3%)35 (60.3%)84 (61.3%)89 (58.6%)
Change of body weight (kg, mean±SD)0.2±1.7−0.3±2.00.2131.0±1.7−0.2±1.9<0.0010.7±1.7−0.3±2.0<0.001
Fasting blood sugar (mmol/l, mean±SD)5.9±1.16.1±1.10.2056.5±1.86.2±1.40.3786.2±1.66.2±1.20.604
Low-density lipoprotein (mmol/l, mean±SD)3.1±1.02.9±0.80.3302.8±0.93.1±0.90.1072.9±0.93.0±0.80.608
HBPM practice
Own their BP devices (%) yes44 (86.3%)74 (78.7%)0.26552 (60.4%)38 (65.5%)0.53996 (70.1%)112 (73.7%)0.495
  • No

7 (13.7%)20 (21.3%)34 (39.5%)20 (34.5%)41 (29.9%)40 (26.3%)
Measure BP at home in the past 6 months (%) Yes39 (76.5%)74 (78.7%)0.75549 (57.0%)34 (58.6%)0.84588 (64.2%)108 (71.1%)0.215
  • No

12 (23.5%)20 (21.3%)37 (43.0%)24 (41.3%)49 (35.8%)44 (28.9%)
Frequency of HBPM
  • More than once weekly

33 (64.7%)70 (74.5%)0.21645 (52.3%)29 (50.0%)0.78478 (56.9%)99 (65.1%)0.153
  • Less than once weekly

18 (35.3%)24 (25.5%)41 (47.7%)29 (50.0%)59 (43.1%)53 (34.9%)
HBPM knowledge
HBPM Assessment Score (%) (N=272)†
  • Full Mark (all correct)

12 (24.1%)63 (71.6%)<0.00115 (19.0%)35 (63.6%)<0.00127 (20.9%)98 (68.5%)<0.001
  • At least one item incorrect

38 (76.0%)25 (28.4%)64 (81.0%)20 (36.4%)102 (79.1%)45 (31.5%)
  • *P value of proportions by Pearson χ2 tests; continuous variables by Student’s t-tests.

  • †17 participants refuse to answer knowledge score 6 month post-intervention

  • BP, blood pressure; HBPM, home blood pressure monitoring; HL, health literacy; HT, hypertension; RAMP, Risk Assessment and Management Programme.