Table 2

Patient’s sociodemographic and clinical parameters at baseline

CharacteristicsRAMP-individual (N=137)RAMP-Group (N=152)Total (N=289)P value*
Age (year; mean±SD, median)67.9±10.2, 6766.1±9.7, 6567.0±9.9, 660.528
Gender (%)
  • Male

58 (42.3%)55 (36.2%)113 (39.1%)0.285
  • Female

79 (57.7%)97 (63.8%)176 (60.9%)
Education (%)
  • Primary or below

81 (59.1%)97 (63.8%)178 (61.6%)0.352
  • Secondary school

48 (35.0%)51 (33.6%)99 (34.3%)
  • University or above or unknown

8 (5.8%)4 (2.6%)12 (4.2%)
Occupation (%)
  • Not employed/housewife

105 (76.6%)120 (78.9%)225 (77.9%)0.637
  • Working

32 (23.4%)32 (21.1%)64 (22.1%)
CHLSCC
  • Total 0–48: mean±SD, median

28.11±13.73, 30.535.00±12.76, 39.031.70±13.65, 35<0.001†
  • Adequate (≥36) (%)

51 (37.2%)94 (61.8%)145 (50.2%)<0.001†
  • Inadequate (<36) (%)

86 (62.8%)58 (38.2%)144 (49.8%)
Smoking status
  • Non-smoker

92 (67.2%)121 (79.6%)213 (73.7%)0.056
  • Current smoker

7 (5.1%)5 (3.3%)12 (4.2%)
  • Ex-smoker

38 (27.7%)26 (17.1%)64 (22.1%)
Clinic BP
  • Systolic BP (mm Hg, mean±SD)

152±9.81152.0±10.4152.1±10.10.775
  • Diastolic BP (mm Hg, mean±SD)

78.4±10.680.76±11.979.7±11.40.087
BMI (kg/m2; mean±SD)26.49±4.3126.31±4.2826.39±4.270.774
  • Underweight (<18.5)

4 (2.9%)3 (2.0%)7 (2.4%)0.937
  • Normal (≥18.50 -<23)

22 (16.1%)24 (15.8%)46 (15.9%)
  • Overweight (≥23 -<25)

28 (20.4%)29 (19.1%)57 (19.7%)
  • Obese (≥25)

83 (60.6%)96 (63.2%)179 (61.9%)
Duration of hypertension since diagnosis
(years±SD)
10.92±9.328.43±8.049.62±8.750.015†
Uncomplicated hypertension (%)81 (59.1%)103 (67.8%)184 (63.7%)0.127
Complicated hypertension (%)56 (40.9%)49 (32.2%)105 (36.3%)
  • *P value of proportions by Pearson χ2 tests; continuous variables by Student’s t-tests.

  • †P value <0.05 are bold

  • BMI, body mass index; BP, blood pressure; CHLSCC, Chinese Health Literacy Scale for Chronic Care; RAMP, Risk Assessment and Management Programme.