Table 1

Clinical spectrum of COVID-19 disease1 36–41

Severity of diseasePresentation
  • No clinical symptoms

  • Positive nasal swab test

  • Normal chest X-ray

Mild illness
  • Fever, sore throat, dry cough, malaise and body aches or

  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, loose stools

Moderate illness
  • Symptoms of pneumonia (persistent fever and cough) without hypoxemia

  • Significant lesions on high-resolution CT chest

Severe illness
  • Pneumonia with hypoxemia (SpO2 < 92%)

Critical state
  • Acute respiratory distress syndrome, along with shock, coagulation defects, encephalopathy, heart failure and acute kidney injury