Table 1

Summary of the main evidences on clinical variables in patients with HF who were affected by COVID-19

Left diastolic dysfunctionOften subclinical and reversible in early phases8 16
Left systolic dysfunctionTypical of forms with important cytokines release8
Associated with a higher need of mechanical ventilation16
Right heart dysfunctionAssociated with secondary pulmonary hypertension11
Can be triggered by high positive end-expiratory pressure12
TroponinAbnormal levels associated with pre-existing chronic heart failure3
Levels >28 ng/mL associated with “nonsurvivor” phenotypes4
NT-proBNPLevels >900 pg/mL associated with increased mortality3
Increased in presence of myocardial injury3
ACEIs/ARBsAssociated with lower levels of troponin and NT-proBNP35
No difference in clinical course from patients not treated35
Associated with less severe disease, lower cytokines release, lower viral load36
  • ACEIs/ARBs, ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; NT-proBNP, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide.