Table 4

Management strategies for COVID-19

Drug/treatmentRemarks
Oxygen therapy
  • Nasal cannulas, simple face masks, venture masks or non-rebreather masks for mild cases

  • HFNO therapy or NIV for moderate cases

  • Invasive ventilation via endotracheal intubation for severe cases with ARDS

Antibiotics
  • Given to prevent/treat secondary bacterial infections

  • Azithromycin is preferred in view of anti-inflammatory action

Corticosteroids
  • I.V methylprednisolone is recommended in moderate-to-severe cases at 1–2 mg/kg/day for 3 days

  • Recently, dexamethasone has been found to be beneficial in severe cases

Antiviral drugs
  • Remdesivir has shown efficacy in moderate cases

  • Lopinavir/ritonavir have much lower efficacy

  • Oseltamivir has shown no clear benefit

  • Recently launched favipiravir shows some efficacy in mild-to-moderate cases

Immunomodulatory drugs (anti-interleukins and HCQS)
  • Tocilizumab is a IgG1 monoclonal antibody, directed against the IL-6 receptor which is seen to be beneficial in moderate-to-severe cases of COVID-19

  • HCQS has shown better efficacy and safety profile as compared to chloroquine

Plasma exchange
  • Most beneficial if plasma collected within 2 weeks of patient recovery from disease

Anticoagulation
  • Enoxaparin is indicated in moderate-to-severe cases to prevent venous thromboembolism

  • HCQS, hydroxychloroquine; HFNO, high-flow nasal oxygen; IL, interleukin; NIV, non-invasive ventilation; I.V, intravenous; ARDS, acute respiratory distress syndrome.