Table 1

Population characteristics of COVID-19-positive versus -negative groups, subdivided by serum vitamin D concentrations

Population sample characteristics
COVID-19-positive (N=70)P value
DemographicsVitamin D ≤30 nmol/L (N=39)Vitamin D >30 nmol/L (N=31)COVID-19-negative (N=35)COVID-19-positive vit D ≤30 nmol/L vs >30 nmol/LCOVID-19-positive versus COVID-19-egative
Mean age (SD)79.46 (±9.52)81.16 (7.23)83.44 (±8.08)0.410.064
Male:female24:1518:1315:200.770.075
Rockwood Clinical Frailty Score Median (IQR)6 (6–7)5 (5–6)5 (5–6)0.10.66
Median body mass index (IQR)25 (23–32)24 (20–27)25 (22–29)0.140.75
Smoking status (%)Current smoker1 (2.56)5 (16.13)4 (11.43)0.140.65
Ex-smoker12 (30.77)11 (35.48)15 (42.86)0.660.13
Ethnicity (%)Caucasian29 (74.36)21 (67.74)30 (85.71)0.51*0.27*
South Asian8 (20.51)10 (32.36)3 (8.57)
East Asian2 (5.13)0 (0)0 (0)
Afro-Caribbean0 (0)1 (3.26)3 (8.57)
Comorbidities N (%) P value
Vitamin D ≤30 nmol/L (N=39) Vitamin D >30 nmol/L (N=31) COVID-19-negative (N=35) COVID-19-positive vit D ≤30 nmol/L vs >30 nmol/L COVID-19-positive versus COVID-19-negative
Hypertension18 (46.15)16 (51.61)20 (55.56)0.650.41
Diabetes mellitus17 (43.59)9 (29.03)8 (22.22)0.210.14
Ischaemic heart disease7 (17.95)8 (25.81)11 (30.56)0.430.27
Chronic respiratory disease6 (15.38)7 (22.58)4 (11.11)0.440.35
Heart failure6 (15.38)6 (19.35)5 (13.89)0.660.71
Stroke6 (15.38)3 (9.68)3 (8.33)0.480.52
Dementia4 (10.26)2 (6.45)1 (2.78)0.580.29
Chronic kidney disease10 (25.64)6 (19.35)6 (16.67)0.530.5
Atrial fibrillation6 (15.38)8 (25.81)8 (22.22)0.280.73
Cancer2 (5.13)1 (3.23)2 (5.56)0.70.75
Endocrinological disease1 (7.69)2 (6.45)2 (5.56)0.440.75
Median value (IQR) P value
Vitamin D ≤30 nmol/L (N=39) Vitamin D >30 nmol/L (N=31) COVID-19-negative (N=35) COVID-19-positive vit D ≤30 nmol/L vs >30 nmol/L COVID-19-positive versus COVID-19-negative
Charlson Comorbidity Index5 (3–6)4 (4–5)4 (4–6)0.810.76
COVID-19-positive (N=70)COVID-19-negative (N=35DifferenceP value
Vitamin D concentration (nmol/L)27.00 (20.00–47.00)52.00 (31.50–71.50)25 0.0008
  • *P value for ethnicities calculated by comparing the number of Caucasian patients to all other ethnic groups.

  • vit, vitamin.