Table 2

Summary of study characteristics

Author and
year of publication
Country nameStudy design (RCT)Study duration including follow-upSample size (N)Baseline characteristicsDose and frequency of vitamin ECointervention
TotalInterventionControlAge (years)Gender, % maleIntervention groupControl group
DoseFrequency
Harrison et al , 200312 Texas, USADouble-blind6 months45232250–5344.5Vitamin E
1000 IU
Once dailyPlaceboDiet + exercise +
vitamin C 1000 mg once daily
Vajro et al , 200418 ItalySingle-blind5 months2814145.9–14.1575Vitamin E 888 IU
(2 months)
222 IU
(3 months)
Once daily


Once daily
PlaceboDiet
Nobili et al , 200616 ItalyDouble-blind12 months8845439–15.531.8Vitamin E
600 IU
Once dailyPlaceboDiet +
vitamin C 500 mg once daily
Nobili et al , 200816 ItalyDouble-blind24 months*5325285.7–18.869.8Vitamin E
600 IU
Once dailyPlaceboDiet + exercise + vitamin C 500 mg once daily
Sanyal et al, 201015 USAThree-arm RCT120 weeks2478483Adults above 4540Vitamin E
800 IU
Once dailyPlaceboPioglitazone 30 mg once daily
Lavine et al , 20116 USAThree-arm RCT120 weeks17358588–1781Vitamin E
800 IU
Once dailyPlaceboDietary restriction + exercise + metformin 1000 mg once daily
Foster et al , 201113 USADouble-blind4 years80443650–7077.5Vitamin E
1000 IU
Once dailyPlaceboVitamin C 1000 mg once daily,
atorvastatin 20 mg once daily, aspirin 81 mg
Hoofnagle et al , 201314 USADouble-blind120 weeks139716819–7142Vitamin E 800 IUOnce dailyPlaceboPioglitazone 30 mg
Aller et al , 20151 SpainThree-arm RCT3 months36181818–6761.1Vitamin E
80 IU
Once dailyPlaceboHypocaloric diet 1520 kcal and aerobic exercise at least 4 times a week 60 min each + silymarin 540.3 mg twice daily
  • *Open-label extension of a previous study Nobili et al.

  • IU, international unit; RCT, randomised controlled trial.