Table 1

Interpretations of ‘normal’ (modified from Murphy, 19662)

Conceptions of normalSuggested alternatives
1 Determined statisticallyGaussian
2 Most representative of its classAverage, median, modal
3 Most commonly encounteredHabitual
4 Wild-type: most suited to survival & reproductionFittest
5 Harmless ‘carrying no penalty’Innocuous/harmless
6 Most often aspired toConventional
7 The most perfect of its classIdeal