Table 2

Devices and treatments

Respondents (n=73)ILCOR recommendation 2015
Mechanical chest compression device
Hospital has mechanical device, n (%)49 (67.1)‘We suggest against the routine use of automated mechanical chest compression devices but suggest they are a reasonable alternative to use in situations where sustained high-quality manual chest compressions are impractical or compromise provider safety’ (Weak recommendation)10
Devices currently used by hospitals*, n (%)
Autopulse (ZOLL Medical Corporation, Chelmsford, MA, USA)19 (38.8)
LUCAS (Physio-Control Inc/Jolife AB, Lund, Sweden)35 (71.4)
Indications for use of a mechanical device*, n (%)
Routinely used at all cardiac arrests 1 (2.0)
ED cardiac arrests21 (42.9)
Cardiac catheter laboratory cardiac arrests26 (53.1)
Patients in cardiac arrest requiring transfer10 (20.4)
Cardiac arrest in CT scanner 1 (2.0)
Prolonged cardiac arrest32 (65.3)
Mechanical device not routinely available 2 (4.1)
Waveform gapnography‘We recommend using waveform capnography to confirm and continuously monitor the position of a tracheal tube during CPR in addition to clinical assessment’ (strong recommendation)10
Hospital routinely uses waveform capnography during cardiac arrest events, n (%)
Yes – use at all cardiac arrests26 (35.6)
Yes – where available/specific locations (eg, ED, ITU only)33 (45.2)
No14 (19.2)
Ultrasound‘We suggest that if cardiac ultrasound can be performed without interfering with standard ACLS protocol, it may be considered as an additional diagnostic tool to identify potentially reversible causes’ (weak recommendation)10
Ultrasound used during CPR, n (%)
Yes – routinely available on all wards 3 (4.1)
Yes – if skilled personnel available34 (46.6)
Yes – restricted to ED/ITU29 (39.7)
No 7 (9.6)
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation‘We suggest ECPR is a reasonable rescue therapy for selected patients with cardiac arrest when initial conventional CPR is failing in settings where this can be implemented’ (weak recommendation)10
Hospital has access to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac arrest patients, n (%) 8 (11.0)
CPR prompt/feedback devices‘We suggest the use of real-time audiovisual feedback and prompt devices during CPR in clinical practice as part of a comprehensive system for care for cardiac arrest’ (weak recommendation)8
‘We suggest against the use of real-time audiovisual feedback and prompt devices in isolation (ie, not part of a comprehensive system of care)’ (weak recommendation)8
CPR prompt/feedback devices used by hospitals during CPR, n (%)
Metronome10 (13.7)
Accelerometer-based device12 (16.4)
Other device2 (2.7)
CPR prompt/feedback devices not used routinely during CPR54 (74.0)
Patients where primary percutaneous coronary intervention is considered post-arrest, n (%)
STEMI50 (68.5)‘We recommend emergency cardiac catheterisation laboratory evaluation in comparison with cardiac catheterisation later in the hospital stay or no catheterisation in select adult patients with ROSC after OHCA of suspected cardiac origin with ST elevation on ECG’ (strong recommendation)7
‘We suggest emergency cardiac catheterisation laboratory evaluation in comparison with cardiac catheterisation later in the hospital stay or no catheterisation in select adult patients who are comatose with ROSC after OHCA of suspected cardiac origin without ST elevation on ECG’ (weak recommendation)7
Other (not STEMI) with ECG changes and likely cardiac cause29 (39.7)
All patients with likely cardiac cause26 (35.6)
PCI not available – thrombolysis considered for STEMI 1 (1.4)
No patients 0 (0)
Unsure 6 (8.2)
  • *Multiple answers allowed.

  • ILCOR, International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation; OHCA, Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest; ROSC, Return of Spontaneous Circulation; STEMI, ST-elevation myocardial infarction.