Table 1

Participant characteristics

First semester (n=119)Third semester (n=115)Fifth semester (n=101)Seventh semester (n=68)Ninth semester (n=58)Comparison (p value)
Male gender82 (68.9)55 (47.8)53 (52.5)29 (42.6)29 (50.0)χ2=16.390 (0.003)
Urban background103 (87.3)98 (86.0)88 (87.1)56 (82.4)47 (81.0)χ2=2.002 (0.735)
Self-reported medical illness17 (14.3)14 (12.2)15 (14.9)10 (14.7)9 (15.5)χ2=1.809 (0.771)
Self-reported psychological illness6 (5.0)6 (5.2)9 (8.9)5 (7.4)4 (6.9)χ2=1.788 (0.775)
Have you medicated yourself for physical health problems (eg, antibiotics for cough)90 (75.6)78 (67.8)67 (66.3)57 (83.8)51 (87.9)χ2=14.899 (0.005)
Have you medicated yourself with drugs used to treat psychiatric disorder (eg, sedatives for sleep)5 (4.2)1 (0.9)1 (1.0)5 (7.4)9 (15.5)χ2=23.834 (<0.001)*
Have you sought consultation/help from seniors/peers for physical health problems60 (50.4)61 (53.0)56 (55.4)51 (75.0)41 (70.7)χ2=15.494 (0.004)
Have you sought consultation/help from seniors/peers for mental health problems27 (22.7)16 (13.9)7 (6.9)4 (5.9)7 (12.1)χ2=16.621 (0.002)
Alcohol use5 (4.2)26 (22.6)23 (22.8)21 (30.9)24 (41.4)χ2=38.439 (<0.001)*
Alcohol use leading to harm0 (0.0)1 (0.9)7 (6.9)9 (13.2)9 (15.5)χ2=30.350 (<0.001)*
Tobacco use1 (0.8)5 (4.3)5 (4.0)13 (19.1)13 (22.4)χ2=39.323 (<0.001)*
Tobacco use leading to harm1 (0.8)1 (0.9)2 (2.0)3 (4.4)5 (8.6)χ2=12.138 (0.016)
Cannabis use0 (0.0)2 (1.7)6 (5.9)11 (16.2)10 (17.2)χ2=35.123 (<0.001)*
Cannabis use leading to harm0 (0.0)0 (0.0)0 (0.0)2 (2.9)2 (3.4)χ2=10.822 (0.029)
  • All values are expressed as n (%), unless otherwise indicated

  • Comparisons done using the χ2 test.

  • *Statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons.