Table 1

Results of the consensus of theories identified by the six working groups

TheoryNumber of groups identifying theoryTheory definition
Connectivism6Explains how internet technologies have created opportunities for learning across online peer networks. Teachers guide students to information and key answers as needed to support students’ learning and sharing
Social development theory3Social interaction is fundamental to learning. Learning occurs in the zone of proximal development—the area between needed instructor/peer guidance and the learner's ability to function independently
Communities of practice3A process of social learning that occurs when people with a common interest collaborate sharing ideas, strategies, determining solutions and building innovations
Cognitive apprenticeship1Cognitive apprenticeship attempts to bring tacit processes out into the open. It assumes that people learn from one another through observation, imitation and modelling
Discovery learning1An inquiry-based theory that believes it is best for learners to discover facts and relationships for themselves by exploring, problem solving and discovering knowledge experientially
Self-determination theory1A theory that addresses intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. To actualise a learner's inherent potential the social environment needs to nurture competence, relatedness and autonomy
Cognitive load theory1Describes the human cognitive architecture and the need to apply sound instructional design based on knowledge of working memory, long-term memory and cognitive schemas