Table 2

Strategies to improve communication

ToolBrief description
Step-back (call-out)32 48Stepping back from and taking an overview of the situation, the health professional who is leading the team calls the attention of the team and provides an update of the situation, the plan and invites suggestions.
Closed-loop communication40 53 54This three-step strategy involves; the sender directs the instruction to the intended receiver, using their name where possible; the receiver confirms what was communicated as a check on hearing and understanding the instruction, seeking clarification if required; the sender verifying that the message has been received and correctly interpreted.
Structured information transmission (SBAR/ISBAR)52 55 56This is a widely used acronym to help structure verbal at handover or patient referral. The original version (SBAR) has been expanded in some reports to ISBAR, starting with Identify yourself: Identify →Situation→Background→Assessment→Recommendation.
Structured handover23 57Simple templates for summarising important patient information at handover
Graded assertion (PACE)48Escalating concern (Probe, Alert, Challenge, Emergency)