Table 1

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with acute coronary syndrome according to their tobacco status

Non-tobacco usersEx-tobacco usersCurrent tobacco usersp Value
N (%)3742 (47%)1363 (17%)2834 (36%)
Age (mean, years)60±12* 59±12* 51±110.001
Female1509 (40.4%)* 69 (5.1%)* 108 (3.8%)0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Diabetes mellitus736 (20.4%)* 405 (30.3%)* 385 (13.9%)0.001
 Hypertension2102 (56.8%)* 684 (50.8%)* 961 (34.3%)0.001
 Dyslipidaemia1387 (41.8%)* 493 (40.8%)* 717 (29.9%)0.001
 Family history of cardiac disease352 (11.0%)138 (11.6%)320 (12.4%)0.30
Prior cardiovascular disease
 Angina1651 (44.6%)* 623 (46.1%)* 748 (26.6%)0.001
 Myocardial infarction736 (20.4%)* 405 (30.3%)* 385 (13.9%)0.001
 PCI357 (9.6%)* 201 (14.8%)* 169 (6.0%)0.001
 CABG205 (5.5%)* 93 (6.9%)* 38 (1.3%)0.001
 Heart failure323 (8.8%)* 122 (9.0%)* 78 (2.8%)0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease198 (5.3%)* 84 (6.2%)* 59 (2.1%)0.001
 Peripheral arterial disease65 (1.8%)46 (3.5%)* 34 (1.2%)0.001
 Chronic renal failure218 (5.9%)* 67 (5.0%)* 33 (1.2%)0.001
Presenting symptoms
 Ischaemic type chest pain3017 (80.7%) 1106 (81.3%) 2547 (90%)0.001
Final diagnosis
 Unstable angina1169 (31.3%)* 342 (25.1%)* 420 (14.8%)0.001
 ST-elevation myocardial infarction1283 (34.3%) 608 (44.7%) 1722 (60.8%)0.001
 Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction1287 (34.4%)* 411 (30.2%)* 688 (24.3%)0.001
Preadmission medications
 Aspirin1784 (47.7%)* 665 (48.9%)* 763 (27.0%)0.001
 Clopidogrel483 (12.9%)* 225 (16.5%)* 276 (9.8%)0.001
 β-Blocker1284 (34.3%)* 459 (33.7%)* 561 (19.8%)0.001
 Calcium channel blocker367 (9.8%)* 85 (6.2%)* 102 (3.6%)0.001
 ACE inhibitors1093 (29.2%)* 438 (32.2%)* 504 (17.8%)0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blockers239 (6.4%)* 64 (4.7%)* 68 (2.4%)0.001
 Statin1447 (38.7%)* 492 (36.1%)* 560 (19.8%)0.001
At presentation
 Heart rate (beats per minute)85.8±20.9* 84.7±20.6* 83.1±19.20.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)138.6±29.09* 133.41±28.5132.67±29.050.001
 Diastolic blood Pressure (mm Hg)81.28±17.5780.83±17.3681.5±18.050.50
 Killip class >1927 (24.8%)* 344 (25.2%)* 549 (19.4%)0.001
Electrocardiographic complications at presentation
 Atrial fibrillation107 (2.9%)* 29 (2.1%)* 30 (1.1%)0.001
 2nd or 3rd degree heart block55 (1.5%)24 (1.8%)50 (1.8%)0.60
 Ventricular tachycardia15 (0.4%)8 (0.6%)15 (0.5%)0.60
 Ventricular fibrillation3 (0.1%) 5 (0.4%)13 (0.5%)0.009
 Asystole1 (0%)3 (0.2%)4 (0.1%)0.2
Laboratory result (mean±SD)
 Total cholesterol, mmol/l4.8±1.6 5±1.55±1.60.001
 Serum triglyceride, mmol/l1.7±1 1.9±1.41.9±1.20.001
 Serum LDL, mmol/l3.1±1.53±1.1 3.3±1.10.001
 Serum HDL, mmol/l1.1±0.51.1±0.4* 1±0.60.001
  • * p<0.05 (indicates increase in comparison with current tobacco users).

  • p<0.05 (indicates decrease in comparison with current tobacco users).

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; MI, myocardial infarction; PCI, percutaneous coronary interventions.