Table 4

Treatments and outcomes according to important tobacco modalities

CigaretteWaterpipeOral tobaccop Value
N (%)3605 (46.9%)130 (1.7%)118 (1.5%)
Inhospital therapy
 Glycoprotein IIb/III-a inhibitor339 (9.4%)10 (7.7%)1 (0.8%)0.005
 Thrombolytic therapy 1004 (57.9%)16 (29.6%)19 (24.4%) 0.001
 Aspirin3556 (98.6%)125 (96.2%)115 (97.5%)0.04
 Clopidogrel3042 (84.4%)115 (88.5%)104 (88.1%)0.25
 ACE inhibitor2538 (70.4%)106 (81.5%)* 101 (85.6%)* 0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blocker142 (3.9%)5 (3.8%)0 (0%)0.09
 β-Blockers2716 (75.3%)88 (67.7%)89 (75.4%)0.14
 Statins3458 (95.9%)124 (95.4%)114 (96.6%)0.88
 Calcium channel blockers188 (5.2%)3 (2.3%)6 (5.1%)0.34
Discharge medications
 Aspirin3375 (95.5%)112 (88.2%) 112 (95.7%)0.001
 Clopidogrel2758 (76.7%)100 (76.9%)99 (83.9%)0.19
 β-Blockers2918 (81.1%)97 (74.6%)94 (79.7%)0.17
 ACE inhibitor2606 (72.5%)99 (76.2%)* 104 (88.1%)* 0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blocker204 (5.7%)10 (7.7%)2 (1.7%)0.11
 Statin3345 (93%)112 (86.2%) 109 (92.4%)0.01
 Calcium channel blockers205 (5.7%)4 (3.1%)5 (4.2%)0.36
Inhospital complications
 Recurrent ischaemia508 (14.1%)35 (26.9%)* 17 (14.4%)0.001
 Recurrent myocardial infarction53 (1.5%)3 (2.3%)1 (0.8%)0.63
 Ventilation144 (4.0%)13 (10%)* 5 (4.2%)0.004
 Heart failure418 (11.6%)20 (15.4%)12 (10.2%)0.37
 Cardiogenic shock192 (5.3%)12 (9.2%)8 (6.8%)0.25
 Major bleeding16 (0.4%)3 (2.3%)1 (0.8%)0.07
 Stroke21 (0.6%)1 (0.8%)2 (1.7%)0.31
 Death121 (3.4%)11 (8.5%)* 4 (3.4%)0.008
 1-Month death205 (6.6%)14 (12.2%07 (7.2%)0.06
 1-Year death274 (9.8%)15 (14.4%)11 (12.6%)0.22
  • * p≤0.05 (indicates increase in comparison with cigarette users).

  • p<0.05 (indicates decrease in comparison with cigarette users).

  • PCI of those eligible for reperfusion therapy.

  • PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention.