Table 3

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of patients with acute coronary syndrome for important tobacco modalities

CigaretteWaterpipeOral tobaccop Value
N (%)3605 (46.9%)130 (1.7%)118 (1.5%)
Age (mean, years)52.9±11.659.4±12* 63±13* 0.001
Female74 (2.1%)50 (38.5%)* 9 (7.6%)* 0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
 Diabetes mellitus1224 (34.6%)48 (37.5%)29 (25.2)0.09
 Hypertension1398 (39.2%)69 (53.1%)* 29 (24.8%) 0.001
 Dyslipidaemia1050 (29.1%)38 (29.2%)19 (16.1%) 0.001
 Family history of cardiac disease395 (11%)18 (13.8%)10 (8.5%)0.40
Prior cardiovascular disease
 Angina1201 (33.3%)35 (26.9%) 21 (17.8%) 0.004
 Myocardial infarction703 (19.5%)19 (14.6%)10 (8.5%) 0.009
 PCI341 (9.5%)10 (7.7%)2 (1.7%) 0.01
 CABG118 (3.3%)1 (0.8%)2 (1.7%)0.31
 Heart failure175 (4.9%)5 (3.8%)3 (2.5%)0.32
 Cerebrovascular disease116 (3.2%)10 (7.7%)3 (2.5%)0.05
 Peripheral arterial disease66 (1.8%)4 (3.1%)2 (1.7%)0.40
 Chronic renal failure87 (2.4%)3 (2.3%)1 (0.8%)0.39
Presenting symptoms
 Ischaemic type chest pain3198 (88.7%)105 (80.8%) 90 (76.3%) 0.001
Final diagnosis
 Unstable angina666 (18.5%)35 (26.9%)8 (6.8%)
 ST-elevation myocardial infarction1960 (54.4%)60 (46.2%) 84 (71.2%)*
 Non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction979 (27.2%)35 (26.9%)26 (22%)0.001
Preadmission medications
 Aspirin1230 (34.4%)46 (35.7%)32 (27.1%)0.24
 Clopidogrel453 (12.6%)18 (13.8%)9 (7.6%)0.25
 β-Blocker896 (24.9%)34 (26.2%)23 (19.5%)0.39
 Calcium channel blocker170 (4.7%)4 (3.1%)4 (3.4%)0.55
 ACE inhibitors792 (22%)39 (30%)22 (18.6%)0.06
 Angiotensin receptor blockers118 (3.3%)5 (3.8%)0 (0%)0.13
 Statin938 (26%)31 (23.8%)17 (14.4%) 0.02
At presentation
 Heart rate (beats per minute)82.7±1985.9±21* 87±15* 0.01
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)132.6±28137.8±33131±270.10
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)81±1784±2080±150.16
 Killip class >1736 (20.4%)39 (30%)* 22 (18.6%)0.02
Electrocardiographic complications at presentation
 Atrial fibrillation49 (1.4%)2 (1.5%)0 (0%)0.44
 2nd or 3rd degree heart block54 (1.5%)7 (5.4%)* 2 (1.7%)0.02
 Ventricular tachycardia18 (0.5%)2 (1.5%)1 (0.8%)0.26
 Ventricular fibrillation14 (0.4%)1 (0.8%)1 (0.8%)0.61
 Asystole7 (0.2%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0.79
Laboratory result (mean±SD)
 Total cholesterol, mmol/l4.8±1.65±1.55.5±1.8* 0.001
 Serum triglyceride, mmol/l1.9±1.22.1±1.32.2±1.0* 0.005
 Serum LDL, mmol/l3.2±1.13.1±1.02.9±1.10.03
 Serum HDL, mmol/l1.03±0.50.9±0.31±0.40.7
  • * p<0.05 (indicates increase in comparison with cigarette users).

  • p<0.05 (indicates decrease in comparison with cigarette users).

  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting; HDL, high density lipoprotein; LDL, low density lipoprotein; PCI, percutaneous coronary interventions.