Table 1

Study descriptions

AuthorConditionTopic of guidelineParticipants, sample frameSample sizeOutcome measureMeasurement validationPublication of guidelineTime of study
Beaulieu et al, 20055Medical treatment of stable angina
  1. Prescription for aspirin

  2. Favour β blockers as first choice anti-angina drug

  3. Control LDL cholesterol

Random, stratified sample of 1/3 family physicians, all cardiology and internal medicine specialists in Quebec, Canada1228Mailed self-report surveyBased on Pathman's questionnaireFebruary 1999 Quebec College of Physicians mailed one page summaryMay 1999
Cabana et al, 20076Medical treatment of children with asthmaPrescribing inhaled corticosteroids for children with persistent asthma symptomsNational, random cross-sectional survey of paediatricians and family physicians, from American Medical Association (AMA) master file of US physicians694Mailed self report survey, two follow-up surveys, telephone callBased on literature review and physician focus groups
  • 2002 update

  • National Heart, Lung & Blood Institute Asthma Guidelines

September–November 2004
Cruz-Correa et al, 20017Screening for Barrett's oesophagus
  • Screening for Barrett's oesophagus in patients with

  • 1. no dysplasia

  • 2. low grade dysplasia

Stratified random sampling of members of three specialty organisations, excluding those in training programmes and retired specialists235Mailed self-report survey with three case scenarios, two follow-up surveysSurvey and case scenarios used at baseline and follow-up 19–22 months laterAugust 1998 guidelines developed by American College of GastroenterologyOctober 1999–January 2000
Erhardt et al, 20088Medical management of patients with chronic heart failureAgreement with guidelines for pharmacotherapyRandom identification from research database of cardiologists in seven western European countries, according to specific inclusion criteria, country quotas484On-line survey including three case scenarios, translatedValidated and piloted in face-to-face interviews2005 European Society of Cardiology guidelines for chronic heart failureNot recorded
Freed et al, 19949Immunisation of infantsUniversal hepatitis B immunisation of infantsAll paediatricians and random sample of family physicians in North Carolina, USA591Mailed self-report survey, two follow-up surveysFirst survey repeated, used as pilot
  • November 1991 ACIP

  • February 1992 AAP

  • August 1992 AAFP

September–October 1992
Gentile et al, 200410Well child visits to paediatricians
  1. Limit children's media time

  2. Discourage TV viewing among children <2 years

  3. Encourage alternative entertainment for children

All members of the Minnesota chapter of American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP)899Mailed self report survey, three remindersSurvey designed by authorsFebruary 2001 AAP media use guidelinesJuly–October 2002
Heneghan et al, 200711Management of hypertension
  1. Adjust blood pressure for home/self monitoring

  2. Measure blood pressure both arms

  3. Provide verbal lifestyle advice

  4. Provide written lifestyle advice

  5. Annual review of patients with mild hypertension

  6. Statin therapy for primary prevention

Survey of all UK general practitioners registered on, an online organisation for UK doctors800Internet survey, presented as a link in a targeted electronic bulletinAdapted and piloted from Pathman's original questionnaire2004 Guidelines from British Hypertension Society GuidelinesMay 2006
Pathman et al, 19963Paediatric vaccine recommendations
  1. Second dose of measles vaccine

  2. Haemophilus influenza type B (HIB) at 2 months

  3. Universal hepatitis B immunisation of all infants

  4. Acellular vaccine for 4th and 5th pertussis dose

Random selection from AMA's master file of family physicians and paediatricians in nine US locations, stratified for community size2146Mailed self-report survey, two follow-up p surveysSurvey instrument pilot tested with 100 paediatricians and family physicians
  • 1988–2nd dose of measles

  • 1990–HIB at 2 months

  • 1992-universal Hep B

  • 1992–acellular pertussis vaccine 4,5 dose

October 1993–January 1994
Pitimana-Aree et al, 200712Anaesthetic practice
  1. Conscious sedation

  2. Provision of anaesthesia

  3. Pre-anaesthetic evaluation

  4. Labour analgesia

  5. Emergency endotracheal intubation

  6. Spinal anaesthesia

National survey, based on college list of anaesthesiologists (600) and nurse anaesthetists (1300) in Thailand1900Mailed self-report surveyNot described2006—Royal College of Anaesthesiologists of Thailand proposed and revised six guidelinesNot recorded
Weyman et al, 199513Screening for Chlamydia trachomatis infectionSelective screening of asymptomatic womenAll registered staff physicians and residents working in six hospital family practice teaching units in downtown Toronto153Mailed self-report survey with case scenarios, one reminderLiterature search guided development of questionnaireNovember 1989 Canadian guidelines mailed to all practising physicians in CanadaDecember 1990
Zimmerman et al, 200414Influenza vaccination for elderly adultsRecommend vaccination of elderly patients with asthma
  • Stratified random sample of primary care clinicians from Veterans Affairs (VA) practices in USA

  • Random sample of approx 22 patients of each clinician, minimum 15 completed patient interviews per clinician

  • 71 clinicians

  • 925 patients aged 65 or over

  • Physicians: personal interview+self report survey

  • Patients: telephone questionnaire+self report of 1999–2000 influenza vaccination

  • Based on Precede—Proceed model, Awareness-to-adherence model included as predisposing factors

  • Piloting occurred

2000—CDC Guidelines for vaccinating elderly adultsAugust 1999–February 2000