Table 2

Overview of study methods and results

Author & year (reference)OutcomeCPET variablesNon-CPET variablesComparisons
ATEmbedded Image peakEmbedded ImageOther CPET variables associated with outcomeRCRIOther variables associated with outcomeWhich type of variable performed best (CPET or non-CPET)
Mixed major intra-abdominal surgery
Older et al (1993)5Cardiovascular related mortalityEmbedded Image
Older et al (1999)13Cardiovascular related mortalityEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEII
All cause mortalityEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEII
Snowdon et al (2010)8Early morbidity—POMS (day 7)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageVSAQCPET
Wilson et al (2010)9All cause hospital mortalityEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageIHDCPET
90 day mortalityEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageNSNSNS
Hightower et al (2010)16MorbidityEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image1. HR at AT. 2. ΔHR from rest to ATASACPET
2. ΔHR from rest to ATASACPET
Upper Gastrointestinal surgery
Nagamatsu et al (1994)17Cardiopulmonary complicationsEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageV50/V25NS
Nagamatsu et al (2001)18Cardiopulmonary complicationsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image%DLCOCPET
Forshaw et al (2008)19Cardiopulmonary complicationsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Non-cardiopulmonary complications, unplanned ITU admission, and LOSEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
McCullough et al (2006)12Primary outcome composite (death, unstable angina, MI, DVT, PE, renal failure or stroke)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageNS
Hospital LOSNSEmbedded ImageNS
Vascular surgery (AAA repair)
Nugent et al (1998)20Postoperative complicationsEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
Carlisle and Swart (2007)14All cause mortality at mid term (median, 35 weeks)Embedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImageEmbedded ImagePOSSUM SAPS II APACHEIICPET
Liver transplant surgery
Epstein et al (2004)21100 day mortalityEmbedded ImageEmbedded Image
  • Embedded ImageSignificant capacity to predict outcome; Embedded Imagesignificant association between variable and outcome; Embedded ImageAssociation appears present between variable and outcome, although, statistics were either not performed,13 or conflicting,19 Embedded ImageNo association between variable and outcome; NS, association between the outcome and preoperative variables was measured but results were not stated in the research article; –variable not tested in this study.

  • AAA, abdominal aortic aneurysm; AT, anaerobic threshold; APACHEII, Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II; ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Score; CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise test; DLCO, Diffusing Capacity of the Lung for Carbon Monoxide; DVT, deep vein thrombosis; EII, exercise induced ischaemia; IHD, ischaemic heart disease; ITU, intensive therapy unit; LOS, length of stay; MI, myocardial infarction; PE, pulmonary emboli; POMS, Postoperative Morbidity Survey; POSSUM, Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for the enumeration of Mortality and Morbidity; RCRI, Revised Cardiac Risk Index; SAPS II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II; VSAQ, Veterans Specific Activity Questionnaire; Embedded Image peak, peak oxygen uptake; Embedded Image, ventilatory equivalent for oxygen; Embedded Image, ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide.