Table 1

Study characteristics and design

Author, year (reference)Type of surgeryPopulation (selection criteria)Study design
Prospective vs retrospectiveDesignBlinded from CPET results*
Older et al (1993)5Major intra-abdominal187 patients (age >60 years)Not statedObservationalEmbedded Image
Older et al (1999)13Major intra-abdominal548 patients (>60 years or <60 years with previous MI or heart failure)ProspectiveInterventionEmbedded Image
Snowdon et al (2010)8Major intra-abdominal116 patients (METS <7)ProspectiveObservationalEmbedded Image
Wilson et al (2010)9Major intra-abdominal843 patients (>55 years, or <55 years with comorbidities)RetrospectiveObservationalEmbedded Image
Hightower et al (2010)16Major intra-abdominal32 patientsProspectiveObservationalEmbedded Image
Nagamatsu et al (1994)17Upper GI (thoracolaparotomy for oesophageal cancer)52 patientsNot statedObservationalEmbedded Image
Nagamatsu et al (2001)18Upper GI (oesophagectomy + lymphadenectomy)91 patientsRetrospectiveObservationalEmbedded Image
Forshaw et al (2008)19Upper GI (oesophagectomy)78 consecutive patientsNot statedObservationalEmbedded Image
McCullough et al (2006)12Upper GI (laparoscopic gastric bypass)109 patients (BMI >35 kg/m2 with diabetes or >40 kg/m2 without)Not statedObservationalEmbedded Image
Nugent et al (1998)20AAA repair30 patientsNot statedObservationalEmbedded Image
Carlisle and Swart (2007)14AAA repair130 patientsNot statedObservationalEmbedded Image
Epstein et al (2004)21Hepatic transplantation59 patientsNot statedObservationalEmbedded Image
  • * A study was considered to be blinded if it stated that individuals involved in perioperative care and postoperative data collection were blinded from CPET results.

  • AAA, abdominal aortic aneurysm; BMI, body mass index; CPET, cardiopulmonary exercise test; GI, gastrointestinal; METS, metabolic equivalents; MI myocardial infarction.