Table 1

Category and causes of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis

CategoryCauses
PostinfectiousViral
Bacterial
Fungal
Atypical mycobacteria15
ABPA
COPD16–18
Idiopathic
TractionPost-tuberculosis fibrosis
Post-radiation fibrosis
Fibrosis (eg, sarcoidosis)
Collagen vascular diseases
Twisting or displacement of the airways after lobar resection
Inhalation/aspirationInhalation of corrosive substances
Aspiration of foreign body
ObstructionBenign bronchogenic tumours
Broncholithiasis
Enlarged lymph nodes
Amyloidosis22Nodular pulmonary amyloidosis
Secondary amyloidosis
Coeliac disease28
Endometriosis30
Yellow nail syndrome
Young's syndrome35 36
Immunological abnormalitiesPrimary
 Common variable immune deficiency
 Congenital agammaglobulinaemia
 Hyper IgE (Job) syndrome14 Etc.
Secondary
 Chemotherapy
 Immunosuppressive therapy
 Cancer (eg, chronic lymphatic leukaemia)
Congenital abnormalitiesAnatomic
 Scoliosis, pectus excavatum19
 Marfan syndrome
 Tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier–Kuhn syndrome)
 Pulmonary sequestration
 Williams–Campbell syndrome
Other
 Primary ciliary dyskinesia (Kartagener syndrome)
 α1-antitrypsin deficiency
 Defective ENaC protein20
Diffuse panbronchiolitis21
Relapsing polychondritis
Rheumatoid arthritis23–26
Systemic lupus erythematosus27
Sjögren29
Ankylosing spondylitis
Inflammatory bowel disease31–34
  • ABPA, allergic brochopulmonary aspergillosis; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.