Table 1

Characteristics of participants

IDGroup*Recruitment sourceSexAllergic diagnosesSelf-reported allergensTest history
01APaediatric allergy clinicMAnaphylaxis from age 5Latex, nuts, egg, prawnSPT & RAST
02BPaediatric allergy clinicMAllergic vomiting as infant, urticaria, asthma; at risk of anaphylaxisWheat, egg, nuts, peas, lentils, banana, kiwi, fish, cat hair, dust miteSPT & RAST
03BPaediatric allergy clinicMAnaphylaxis before 1st birthday preceded by eczema and allergic vomiting when weaningMilk, egg, wheat, glutenSPT & RAST, alternative testing
04BPaediatric allergy clinicMAnaphylaxis before 1st birthday preceded by allergic vomiting when weaning,Dairy, egg, wheat, sesame seeds, most nutsSPT & RAST
05DGPMPhotodermatitis, no history of atopy or anaphylaxisSkinUncertain
06APaediatric allergy clinicMAnaphylaxis at age 2NutSPT & RAST awaiting nut challenge
08DGPFMarked local reaction to bee stings, no anaphylaxisBee stingsNone
09DGPFChronic idiopathic urticaria, no anaphylaxisUrticaria, hay feverNone
10DGPFAsthma, urticaria, no anaphylaxis (but grandson with anaphylaxis)Pollen, dogs, cats, hay, grass, sprays, dust, soapsNone
12DGPFRhinitis, no anaphylaxisHouse dust mite, straw, dogs and catsSPT
13CAnaphylaxis CampaignFAnaphylaxis. Other conditions include asthma and hay feverNutsSPT & RAST
14AAnaphylaxis CampaignMAnaphylaxis to peanuts, cold-induced urticariaPeanut, cold climateSPT & RAST
16CGPFAnaphylaxis onset young adultPollens, shellfish and kiwiNone
17CGPFAnaphylaxis from age 7All nuts and nut productsNone
21DGPFAsthma, eczema, no anaphylaxisMultiple food, pollen, etcPatch & Vega
22CGPMAnaphylaxis to wasp sting aged 40Grass pollen, wasp venomSPT & RAST
23CGPFAnaphylaxis at age 19Dry roasted peanut, Californian wineSPT
25BPaediatric allergy clinicFAnaphylaxis as toddler, preceded by bad eczema when weaningNuts, eggRAST
28CSnowballingMAnaphylaxisNutsPatch
29DSnowballingFOral allergy syndromeWalnut, dried date, apricotNone
  • * A, children with anaphylaxis occurring ‘out of the blue’; B, children in whom the recognition of severe allergy was perceived as delayed; C, adults with anaphylaxis who adapted; D, adults in search of an answer.

  • Patient's self-report of nuts commonly included peanuts (strictly legumes); we did not attempt to differentiate these from true nuts.

  • Patch, skin patch testing; RAST, radioallergosorbent testing for IgE in blood; SPT, skin prick test; Vega, VegaTest, a form of electrodermal testing.