Table 3 Odds of depression calculated using multiple logistic regression, separately for type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 n = 1265Type 2 n = 3845
OR (95% CI)p ValueOR (95% CI)p Value
White European vs South Asian0.86 (0.46 to 1.60)0.6381.60 (1.22 to 2.10)<0.001
Age <59 vs ≥601.10 (0.65 to 1.86)0.7211.63 (1.28 to 2.07)<0.001
Females vs males2.10 (1.39 to 3.19)<0.0011.48 (1.19 to 1.84)<0.001
Comorbidities vs none1.89 (1.21 to 2.96)0.0051.53 (1.22 to 1.92)<0.001
Complications vs none1.84 (1.11 to 3.04)0.0181.33 (1.04 to 1.71)0.023
Insulin yes vs no1.53 (1.17 to 2.00)0.001
OAD yes vs no1.06 (0.82 to 1.36)0.664
BMI* (5 unit change)1.02 (0.97 to 1.06)0.4541.01 (0.99 to 1.03)0.121
HbA1c (1 unit change)1.05 (0.93 to 1.17)0.4111.00 (0.94 to 1.07)0.879
Duration of diabetes
    6–14 vs 0–50.65 (0.33 to 1.26)0.2031.16 (0.88 to 1.53)0.299
    15+ vs 0–50.58 (0.31 to 1.11)0.1040.99 (0.71 to 1.38)0.942
IMDS
    2 vs 10.92 (0.53 to 1.62)0.7961.30 (0.94 to 1.81)0.117
    3 vs 10.71 (0.63 to 1.95)0.7101.55 (1.11 to 2.15)0.009
    4 vs 11.08 (0.59 to 1.96)0.7941.49 (1.09 to 2.07)0.013
  • *Including imputed data.BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; IMDS, indices of multiple deprivation score; OAD, oral anti-diabetic drug; OR, odds ratio.