Table 2 Association between depression and demographic and medical variables
Type 1 diabetes mellitusType 2 diabetes mellitus
Total NoDepressed No (%)p ValueTotal NoDepressed No (%)p Value
Ethnicity
    South Asian16016 (10)0.3551305100 (7.7)0.007
    White European115491 (7.9)3116320 (10.3)
Age (years)
    <59109685 (7.8)0.4601598183 (11.5)<0.001
    ≥6027725 (9.0)3073252 (8.2)
Sex
    Males79446 (5.8)<0.0012475189 (7.6)<0.001
    Females58164 (11)2198246 (11.2)
South Asian
    Males997 (7.1)0.17367539 (5.8)0.009
    Females619 (14.8)63061 (9.7)
White European
    Males66137 (5.6)<0.0011676146 (8.7)0.002
    Females49354 (11)1440174 (12.1)
IMDS (quartiles)
    146334 (7.3)0.752106883 (7.8)0.124
    235326 (7.4)1123101 (9.0)
    330226 (8.6)1204121 (10.0)
    424623 (9.3)1219127 (10.4)
Duration of diabetes (years)
    0–521519 (8.8)0.6631720136 (7.9)0.005
    6–1435024 (6.9)1497168 (11.2)
    ≥1578263 (8.1)1024104 (10.2)
Insulin
    Yes2622294 (11.2)<0.001
    No2045140 (6.8)
OAD
    Yes896 (6.7)0.8403196311 (9.7)0.142
    No1284104 (8.1)1464122 (8.3)
Comorbidities
    Yes34127 (12.0)0.0022162242 (11.2)<0.001
    No103168 (6.6)2500191 (7.6)
Complications
    Yes75271 (9.4)0.0212205253 (11.5)<0.001
    No61437 (6.0)2440180 (7.4)
Smoker
    Yes39443 (10.9)0.01575589 (11.8)0.014
    No98167 (6.8)3918346 (8.8)
HbA1c (%)
    ⩾7114999 (8.6)0.1013058287 (9.4)0.785
    ⩽6.921611 (5.1)1437139 (9.7)
BMI (kg/m2)
    ≥302987 (30.7)1.000173873 (4.2)0.025
    <2990123 (2.6)141438 (2.7)
  • BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycosylated haemoglobin; IMDS, indices of multiple deprivation score; OAD, oral anti-diabetic drug.