Table 1 Demographic and medical characteristics of patients by diabetes type and ethnicity
Total sampleType 1 diabetes mellitusType 2 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 No (%)Type 2 No (%)South AsianWhite Europeanp ValueSouth AsianWhite Europeanp Value
No14054781166117813313193
Age (years)
    <591123 (80)1651 (34.5)141 (84.9)934 (79.4)0.118660 (49.6)896 (28.1)0.001
    ≥60280 (20)3128 (65.5)25 (15.1)242 (20.6)671 (50.4)2295 (71.9)
Sex
    Males810 (42.3)2523 (52.8)103 (62)673 (57.1)0.264686 (51.5)1712 (53.6)0.214
    Females595 (57.3)2258 (47.2)63 (38)505 (42.9)645 (48.5)1481 (46.4)
IMDS (quartiles)
    1468 (33.6)1088 (23)23 (14.1)429 (36.7)0.001146 (11.1)893 (28.3)0.001
    2360 (25.8)1144 (24.2)34 (20.9)311 (26.6)238 (18.1)849 (26.9)
    3308 (22.1)1234 (26.1)60 (36.8)232 (19.8)524 (39.9)641 (20.3)
    4258 (18.5)1256 (26)46 (28.2)198 (16.9)405 (30.8)774 (24.5)
Duration of diabetes (years)
    0–5227 (16.5)1762 (40.6)35 (21.5)177 (15.3)0.003441 (36.2)1232 (42.8)0.001
    6–14359 (25.6)1532 (35.3)54 (33.1)289 (25)431 (35.4)1028 (35.7)
    ≥15791 (57.4)1042 (24.0)74 (45.4)689 (59.7)346 (28.4)621 (21.6)
Insulin2678 (56.1)730 (54.9)1806 (56.6)0.291
OAD93 (6.6)3273 (68.6)20 (12.1)67 (5.7)0.003942 (70.9)2166 (68)0.059
Comorbidities350 (25)2212 (46.4)49 (29.9)291 (24.7)0.185603 (45.4)1507 (47.3)0.255
Complications766 (54.9)2244 (47.2)77 (47.8)663 (56.5)0.047631 (47.7)1486 (46.8)0.630
Smoker402 (28.6)783 (16.4)28 (16.9)359 (30.5)0.001153 (11.5)590 (18.5)0.001
Depression110 (8)435 (9.3)16 (10)91 (7.9)0.355100 (7.7)320 (10.3)0.007
HbA1c ⩾7%1123 (84.1)2946 (67.8)146 (88.5)977 (83.5)0.126942 (73.5)2004 (65.4)0.001
BMI >30 kg/m2298 (24.9)1738 (55.1)38 (26.4)245 (24.4)0.674397 (41.7)1230 (61.1)0.001
  • BMI, body mass index; IMDS, indices of multiple deprivation score; OAD, oral anti-diabetic drug.