Table 1

 Review of reports of infective endocarditis after proctosigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy

Reference (publication date)Endoscopic procedureOrganismValvular lesions
AR, aortic regurgitation; MR, mitral regurgitation; MS, mitral stenosis. *Not further specified in these studies.
2 (1977)Rigid proctosigmoidoscopy Enterococcus faecalis None
3 (1984)Rigid proctosigmoidoscopyEnterococcus*Mitral prolapse
4 (1984)Flexible proctosigmoidoscopyEnterococcus*MS+MR+AR
5 (1984)Flexible proctosigmoidoscopyEnterococcus*Mitral prosthesis
8 (1988)Colonoscopy Streptococcus bovis Aortic sclerosis
9 (1991)Flexible proctosigmoidoscopy Streptococcus sanguis AR
10 (2001)Colonoscopy Lactobacillus rhamnosus None