Table 2

Clinical settings wherein infants experience pain (a partial list)

Disease conditionsDiagnostic proceduresTherapeutic procedures
• Otitis media• Heel puncture• Intravenous cannulation
• Pharyngitis and oral infections• Venous and arterial puncture• Intramuscular injection
• Aphthous ulcers• Suprapubic bladder puncture• Umbilical catheterisation
• Chest pain associated with coughing• Squeezing muscles during blood sampling• Insertion or removal of infant feeding tube
• Infantile colic• Lumbar puncture• Urinary bladder catheterisation
• Headache due a variety of causes• Ventricular puncture• Endotracheal intubation and suction
• Tissue injury due to trauma• Endotracheal suction• Circumcision
• Hydrocephalus• Bronchoscopy• Wound dressing
• Intracranial bleeding• Paracentesis thoracis• Incision and drainage procedures
• Necrotising enterocolitis• Ascitic fluid aspiration• Postoperative state
• Intestinal obstruction• Gastrointestinal endoscopy• Insertion/removal of drainage tubes
• Spasticity• Cystoscopy• Endoscopic sclerotherapy
• Thrombophlebitis