Table 1

Comparison of two common staging classification systems for prostate cancer

Whitmore-Jewett staging systemAJCCS and UICC TNM staging system
AJCCS, American Joint Committee on Cancer Staging; UICC, International Union Against Cancer.
A1: Microscopic focus of well differentiated adenocarcinoma in up to three foci of transurethral specimens or enucleation; clinically not apparent on rectal examinationT1: Tumour not palpable nor visible by imaging
(a) Incidental finding in <5% of resected tissue
(b) Incidental finding in >5% of resected tissue
A2: Tumour not well differentiated or present in more than three areas(c) Tumour identified on needle biopsy due to raised PSA
B1: Asymptomatic palpable nodule <1.5 cm; normal surrounding prostate; no capsular extension; normal acid phosphataseT2: Tumour confined to prostate
(a) Involving one lobe only
B2: Diffuse involvement of gland; no capsular extension; normal acid phosphatase(b) Involving both lobes
T3: Tumour extends through the prostatic capsule
C: Extensive local tumour with penetration through the capsule, contiguous spread; may involve seminal vesicles, bladder neck, lateral side wall of pelvis; acid phosphatase may be elevated; normal bone scan(a) Extracapsular extension
(b) Tumour invades seminal vesicles
T4: Tumour is fixed or invades adjacent structures other than seminal vesicles
D1: Metastases to pelvic lymph nodes below aortic bifurcation; acid phosphatase may be elevatedN1: Metatases in regional lymph node(s)
M1: Distant metastases
D2: Bone or lymph node metastases above aortic bifurcation or other soft tissue metastases(a) Non-regional lymph nodes
(b) Bone
(c) Other sites