Table 1

Different forms of exercise and their impact on BMD

Form of exerciseImpact on BMDSitesStudy
SwimmingNone20
WalkingProtects against further lossHip, lumbar spine37
Gentle aerobic exercise (low impact)Protects against further loss, may increaseHip, lumbar spine26, 27, 34, 40, 41, 42, 45
Vigorous aerobic exercise (high impact)IncreasesHip, lumbar spine21, 26, 27, 29, 33, 34
Weight trainingIncreasesHip, lumbar spine, radius18, 19, 27, 29, 30, 31, 32,
RunningIncreasesHip, lumbar spine16, 17
SquashIncreasesHip, lumbar spine, racquet hand21