Table 1

Treatment options for epistaxis

ModalityData from RCTsData from case reports/uncontrolled series
RCTs, randomised controlled trials.
Local ablation
    Laser: argon, Nd-YAGNoneShort term success in expert hands25,26
    CauterisationNot recommended due to local tissue damage
    Septal dermatoplastyNoneMay be beneficial27
    Septal closureNoneBeneficial if tolerated28
    Arterial ligationNoneCase reports only, long term effects unknown
EmbolisationNoneAnecdotal only : short term benefits (?<1 year)
Systemic therapy
    Oestrogen-progesteroneBeneficial in heavily transfusion-dependent patients
    Tranexamic acid and antifibrinolyticsNoneShort term benefit and risks unknown (see debate)
Topical therapy
    Nasal sprays and creamsNone