Table 2

Aetiology of hyperthyroidism

Disease Mechanism
Graves' diseaseThyroid stimulating IgG antibody
Congenital (neonatal) hyperthyroidismTransplacental passage IgG antibody
Non autoimmune hereditary hyperthyroidismConstituitive activation of TSH receptor
Toxic multinodular goitreRelative excess iodine exposure in previous goitre
Thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (?)
Toxic uninodular goitre (adenoma)Somatic mutation Gsα or TSH receptor
Subacute thyroiditisViral destruction
Silent thyroiditisLymphocytic infiltrate
Postpartum thyroiditisImmune destruction (transient)
Iodine induced hyperthyroidismIncreased substrate for biosynthesis
Drug induced hyperthyroidismIodine
Amiodarone
Lithium (?)
Radiocontrast agents
Hyperemesis gravidarumHuman chorionic gonadotrophin
TSH receptor mutation
Molar pregnancyHuman chorionic gonadotrophin
Thyrotoxicosis factitiaExogenous thyroid hormone
Hamburger toxicosisExogenous thyroid hormone
Metastatic differentiated thyroid cancerEctopic thyroid hormone production
Struma ovariiEctopic thyroid hormone production
Pituitary resistance to thyroid hormoneMutation thyroid hormone β-receptor
Pituitary adenomaAutonomous TSH secretion