Table 1

Group mean (SD) for the outcome variables, plus analysis of variance (ANOVA) comparisons

Variable/group Range Active TENS (n=10) Placebo TENS (n=13) Control (n=10) ANOVAs
Age (years)24–7847.80 (18.86)53.23 (16.45)56.40 (12.53)F=0.72; ns
Breakthrough analgesia (mg of nalbuphine hydrochloride)0–10 4.0 (3.16) 3.85 (3.48) 4.25 (3.74)F=0.38; ns
Ease of procedure1 (very difficult) to 4 (very easy) 2.60 (1.35) 2.38 (1.39) 2.00 (1.15)F=0.54; ns
Pain/self rated1 (no pain) to 100 (couldn't be worse)38.20 (31.24)47.92 (36.37)38.70 (34.71)F=0.30; ns
Pain/endoscopist rated1 (no pain) to 100 (couldn't be worse)53.50 (38.85)29.15 (29.49)50.40 (32.46)F=1.86; ns
PPEQ
 Physical discomfort1-150 9 (min)–63 (max)30.80 (10.24)33.00 (7.33)27.30 (7.50)F=1.32; ns
 Psychological distress1-150 8 (min)–56 (max)22.90 (10.64)18.62 (5.97)16.60 (6.42)F=1.72; ns
 Satisfaction1-150 8 (min)–56 (max)49.60 (4.84)50.69 (4.17)52.50 (4.40)F=1.09; ns
  • 1-150 Subscale scores calculated as in Salmon et al 9; ns = not significant.