Table 3

Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of physical signs in patients with echocardiographic evidence of cardiac tamponade

Physical sign Present % (n) Sensitivity (%) Specificity (%) Positive predictive value (%) Negative predictive value (%)
Tachycardia (>100 beats/min)88 (40)88679257
Raised jugular venous pressure (>3 cm)88 (40)88839662
Pulsus paradoxus (>10 mm Hg)80 (37)8010010055
Hypotension (systolic BP <100 mm Hg)24 (11)24838521
Diminished heart sounds24 (11)2410010011
  • 3-150 Atrial fibrillation was documented in 5 patients and the presence of atrial fibrillation was considered to be related to the pericardial disease in 4 of these patients.