Table 3

 Important clinical parameters that may contribute to the diagnosis of ARAS

HistoryClinical examination
SmokerAbdominal/femoral bruit
Recent onset of hypertension (within 2 years)Evidence of peripheral vascular disease
Difficult to control hypertension (three or more medications)Grade III/IV hypertensive retinopathy
Accelerated hypertension
Age (>70 years)
Antihypertensive medication-induced renal impairment especially by ACE inhibitors
Ischaemic heart disease
Peripheral vascular disease
Episodes of unexplained pulmonary oedema (flash pulmonary oedema)
Renal impairment with any of the above