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Arthropod-borne encephalitis: an overview for the clinician and emerging considerations
  1. Abhilasha Pankaj Boruah1,2,
  2. Kiran T Thakur1
  1. 1 Department of Neurology, NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA
  2. 2 Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Kiran T Thakur, Department of Neurology, NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY 10032, USA; ktt2115{at}


The rapid spread of arboviral infections in recent years has continually established arthropod-borne encephalitis to be a pressing global health concern. Causing a wide range of clinical presentations ranging from asymptomatic infection to fulminant neurological disease, the hallmark features of arboviral infection are important to clinically recognise. Arboviral infections may cause severe neurological presentations such as meningoencephalitis, epilepsy, acute flaccid paralysis and stroke. While the pathogenesis of arboviral infections is still being investigated, shared neuroanatomical pathways among these viruses may give insight into future therapeutic targets. The shifting infection transmission patterns and evolving distribution of arboviral vectors are heavily influenced by global climate change and human environmental disruption, therefore it is of utmost importance to consider this potential aetiology when assessing patients with encephalitic presentations.

  • Infectious disease/HIV

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  • Twitter @abhilashaboruah, @kiranthakurmd

  • Contributors APB contributed to the writing, editing and review of this manuscript. KT contributed to the development, writing, editing and review of this manuscript.

  • Funding KT is supported by NIH K23 (1K23NS105935-01), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Funding, Biomerieux Company.

  • Competing interests KT has the following competing interests: External Consultant, WHO, External Consultant, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Group.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.