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Gut microbiota and obesity: an overview of microbiota to microbial-based therapies
  1. Elham Sheykhsaran1,2,3,
  2. Amin Abbasi4,
  3. Hamed Ebrahimzadeh Leylabadlo5,
  4. Javid Sadeghi1,2,
  5. Samaneh Mehri6,
  6. Fariba Naeimi Mazraeh2,3,
  7. Hadi Feizi2,3,
  8. Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi1,2,7
  1. 1Immunology Research Centre, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  2. 2Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  3. 3Students’ Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  4. 4Student Research Committee, Department of Food Sciences and Technology Research Institute, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
  5. 5Liver and Gastrointestinal Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  6. 6Department of Biochemistry and structural Biology, University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama, USA
  7. 7Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran
  1. Correspondence to Dr Hossein Bannazadeh Baghi, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz, East Azerbaijan, Iran; manuscriptacademic{at}


The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight is a significant public concern throughout the world. Obesity is a complex disorder involving an excessive amount of body fat. It is not just a cosmetic concern. It is a medical challenge that increases the risk of other diseases and health circumstances, such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and certain cancers. Environmental and genetic factors are involved in obesity as a significant metabolic disorder along with diabetes. Gut microbiota (GM) has a high potential for energy harvesting from the diet. In the current review, we aim to consider the role of GM, gut dysbiosis and significant therapies to treat obesity. Dietary modifications, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics compounds, using faecal microbiota transplant, and other microbial-based therapies are the strategies to intervene in obesity reducing improvement. Each of these factors serves through various mechanisms including a variety of receptors and compounds to control body weight. Trial and animal investigations have indicated that GM can affect both sides of the energy-balancing equation; first, as an influencing factor for energy utilisation from the diet and also as an influencing factor that regulates the host genes and energy storage and expenditure. All the investigated articles declare the clear and inevitable role of GM in obesity. Overall, obesity and obesity-relevant metabolic disorders are characterised by specific modifications in the human microbiota’s composition and functions. The emerging therapeutic methods display positive and promising effects; however, further research must be done to update and complete existing knowledge.

  • pathology

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  • Contributors All authors had contributed to providing all sections of this manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.