The increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight is a significant public concern throughout the world. Obesity is a complex disorder involving an excessive amount of body fat. It is not just a cosmetic concern. It is a medical challenge that increases the risk of other diseases and health circumstances, such as diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure and certain cancers. Environmental and genetic factors are involved in obesity as a significant metabolic disorder along with diabetes. Gut microbiota (GM) has a high potential for energy harvesting from the diet. In the current review, we aim to consider the role of GM, gut dysbiosis and significant therapies to treat obesity. Dietary modifications, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics compounds, using faecal microbiota transplant, and other microbial-based therapies are the strategies to intervene in obesity reducing improvement. Each of these factors serves through various mechanisms including a variety of receptors and compounds to control body weight. Trial and animal investigations have indicated that GM can affect both sides of the energy-balancing equation; first, as an influencing factor for energy utilisation from the diet and also as an influencing factor that regulates the host genes and energy storage and expenditure. All the investigated articles declare the clear and inevitable role of GM in obesity. Overall, obesity and obesity-relevant metabolic disorders are characterised by specific modifications in the human microbiota’s composition and functions. The emerging therapeutic methods display positive and promising effects; however, further research must be done to update and complete existing knowledge.
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Contributors All authors had contributed to providing all sections of this manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.