The alarming fact is that approximately one out of every 10 of us will have a kidney stone during our lifetime. The increasing prevalence and associated costs of kidney stones have resulted in it being one of the most commonly encountered and impactful medical conditions. Contributing factors include, but are not limited to, diet, climate, genetics, medications, activity and underlying medical conditions. Symptoms generally parallel stone size. Treatment varies from supportive to procedural (invasive and non-invasive). Prevention remains the best way to avoid this condition especially given the high recurrence rate. First time stone formers require counselling regarding dietary adjustments. Certain risk factors ultimately require a more in-depth metabolic investigation, especially if stones are recurrent. Ultimately, management is defined by stone composition. Where appropriate, we review both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic options. Pivotal to successful prevention is patient education and the encouragement of compliance with the appropriate regimen.
- kidney & urinary tract disorders
- genitourinary medicine
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Contributors MF had the idea for this review. All authors contributed to paper writing. DM worked on final editing.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.