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Strategies for giving feedback in the operating room
  1. Akos Marton1,
  2. James Ashcroft2
  1. 1School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  2. 2Department of Surgery, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr James Ashcroft, Department of Surgery, Cambridge University, Cambridge, UK; jamesashcroft36{at}


Feedback is crucial to learning and is a difficult concept to define, occurring as a consequence of learner performance with the ultimate aim of influencing change in the learner. Here, we discuss strategies for giving feedback in the operating room revolving around the following themes: encouraging a sociocultural process, forming an educational alliance, sharing training goals, finding the appropriate time, giving task-specific feedback, approaching unsatisfactory performance and providing follow-up. It is essential that surgeons understand the fundamental feedback theories at play in the operating room described in this article and how they influence surgical training at all stages.

  • education and training
  • surgery

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  • Contributors All authors made a substantial contribution to the concept and drafting of the article, gave approval for the final version to be published and have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. JA undertook conceptualisation of this article. AM and JA drafted and revised the manuscript. JA approved final manuscript for submission.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.