Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic pain syndrome, characterised by diffuse pain in musculoskeletal system and accompanied by stiffness, fatigue, tender points, sleep disturbances and cognitive and gastrointestinal symptoms. It affects middle-aged women (between 40 and 65) predominantly. Climacteric syndrome, which is characterised by vasomotor, somatic (headache, sleep disorders, myalgia and arthralgia) and psychical (mood changes) symptoms, results from the change in brain neurotransmitter concentrations due to gradual decline of ovarian hormone levels. Currently, studies focus on the similarities of FMS and climacteric syndrome in terms of age of occurrence, epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, symptomatology and treatment. Hormonal fluctuation during menopausal transition is likely the triggering factor for both syndromes. Therefore, hormone replacement therapy is a favourable approach in the treatment of FMS due to the antiallodynic, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effect of oestrogen. In this review, we emphasise the similarity of FMS and climacteric syndrome and suggested that FMS could be considered as a characteristic symptom of climacterium.
- sex steroids & HRT
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Contributors IBO: She contributed to the design of the work, acquisition and analysis of data and drafting the work. CTE and FD: They contributed to the design of the work, analysis of data and revising the work critically for important intellectual content. All authors approve the final version to be published and agrees to be accountable for all aspects of the work.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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