The WHO classification of lung cancer (2015) is based on immunohistochemistry and molecular evaluation. This also includes microscopic analysis of morphological patterns that aids in the pathological diagnosis and classification of lung cancers. Lung cancers are the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recent advancements in identifying the etiopathogenesis are majorly driven by gene mutation studies. This has been explained by The Cancer Genome Atlas, next-generation sequencer and TRAcking non-small cell lung cancer evolution through therapy [Rx]. This article reviews the genetic profile of adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and pulmonary carcinoids. This includes the prolific genetic alterations and novel molecular changes seen in these tumours. In addition, target- specific drugs that have shown promising effects in clinical use and trials are also briefly discussed.
- molecular biology
- thoracic surgery
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Contributors SU and MMB contributed equally to the conception, design, data collection, drafting, revision and granting approval for the final version.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.