Article Text

other Versions

Download PDFPDF
Statistics: an introduction to basic principles
  1. Philip D Welsby1,
  2. Mark Weatherall2,3
  1. 1Retired, Edinburgh, UK
  2. 2Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand
  3. 3Older Adults and Rehabilitation, Capital and Coast District Health Board, Wellington, New Zealand
  1. Correspondence to Dr Philip D Welsby, Retired, Edinburgh, UK; philipwelsby{at}


The essential principles of statistics as applied to surveys, studies, sampling, epidemiology, screening, and trials are described and explained.

  • statistics & research methods
  • epidemiology

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Contributors We are the sole contributors.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.